Open Africa Power 2019
Name: Hamani Kamal
Bio/Personal Statement: In September 2014 I graduated with Master Degree in Electrical Engineering at the Mouloud Mammeri University in Algeria. During this degree period I was in touch with materials as the electromagnetic modelling, the electric machines and drive design, the signal treatment, the applied math, especially the numerical method as the Finite Element Method, etc. Since October 2014 I have been a first stage researcher at the Electrical Engineering department of The Mouloud Mammeri University, where I am working on the electromagnetic modelling topic. My current work seeks to find correlation between environmental condition and electrical devices; it is based upon building electromagnetic models, by using a hybrid method, between numerical and semi-analytical approach.
Thanks to this experience I got skills in the physic modelling systems, the several research protocols, theoretical and experimental; this part of my professional pathway allows me getting great communication command in both French and English languages, good abilities in the data analysis and the capacity to work as a team or autonomously. Recently I have the chance to work as a consultant with an industrial cabinet, and then I find out about my new skills in the client relations, situation and condition analysis and the problem solving.
Title of Capstone Project: Power systems control using the Learning machine technique – Case of small rural village in Algeria
Abstract: The electricity transmission and distribution are important in the power sector as it is the production step; they allow the bringing of electricity to the end user. The electricity transmission and distribution are distinct by two methods. The fist and the oldest one is a linear grid figuration, where the energy flow is running in one sense from the electricity plane until the end user. But these last years a new electricity distribution way is rising, because of transformation occurred in the power grid configuration, due to the penetration of the grid with the renewable energies. The second method to transit and to distribute electricity is the called smart grid, organized as an ecosystem. In the new power grid generation is not easy to define the upstream either the downstream, then the energy flow is not running in one direction. Such transformation demand new devices and tools. Due to the both energy consumption and associated building operation costs are increasing rapidly around the world, the need for flexible and cost-effective management of the energy used by buildings in a smart grid environment is increasing.
To answer the double challenge of reduce the carbon emission and keep the electricity available and accessible for all. We need to innovate in the production, transport, and distribution of electricity. In the Algeria case, two main issues must be addressed, the first goal is to launch an energy changeover; by passing gradually from the current production electricity mode rely on the fossil resources to renewable resources. The second aim will be the digitalization of the power grid, which can improve, the way with which the electricity is used, by consequence reduce the electricity consumption. Then the digitalization might be a manner to reduce the carbon emission. The challenge is well addressed and there are strategies and visions to solve it, due to the rarefaction of fossil energies resources, nevertheless the digitalization is not taken seriously under consideration in the in public policy. This paper deals with the method recommended driving Algeria from the current grid configuration to and smart grid technology.
As a pilot project we would work in a case of a rural village in the Mountainair region of Kabylie in Algeria. We consider the problem of minimizing the difference in the demand and the supply of power using microgrid. We setup a microgrid that provides electricity to a village. They have access to the batteries that can store renewable power and also the electrical lines from the main grid. During each time period, these microgrids need to take decision on the amount of renewable power to be used from the batteries as well as the amount of power needed from the main grid. In the first stage of our work, we will collect several kinds of data indispensable of our project. In the second time will build a grid model that helps us to predict the grid comportment. Finally we will explore how a computational approach to learning from interactions, called Machine Learning (ML) can be applied to control power systems. We describe some challenges in power system control and discuss how some of those challenges could be met by using these ML methods. The difficulties associated with their application to control power systems are described and discussed as well as strategies that can be adopted to overcome them.
Name: Sidnoma Nita Belemsobgo
Personal Statement: Miss Sidnoma Nita is currently a PhD student in law at the University of Lagos (Nigeria). Before her PhD studies she worked in public, private sectors but also NGOs. For almost 4 years, Nita has been heavily involved in her community's associative activities as volunteer but also as a journalist where she offered educational programs. She is currently a member of the Environmental Law Commission of Burkina-Faso, Member of the “Reseau de l’Afrique Francophone des Juristes de l’Environnement”, alumni of the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) etc. When Nita is free, she enjoys swimming, reading, and singing.
Capstone Project Title: SOLAR BIKE: PEDALING FOR MORE LIGHT IN KOUPELA BURKINA FASO)
Abstract: "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles."
Thomas Edison’s prediction doesn’t come true. Not only does electricity access remain an acute issue in Burkina Faso almost two centuries, but in addition, the accelerated consumption of fossil fuels is leading to drastic consequences for humans and nature. To encourage greater access to renewable energy, the Government of Burkina Faso has been subsidizing energy programmes in the country (exemptions from customs duties and VAT on solar equipment) for a couple of years now. Nevertheless, a lot of work remains to be done as energy access in the rural areas remains very low.
Our project aims to make bicycle-mounted hybrid solar- and human-powered devices available to the residents of five (5) villages in the municipality of Koupéla. The idea leverages the fact that bicycles are widely used in rural areas as part of the local population’s daily life. This device will have dual functionality: powering the bicycle light and generating energy for domestic use (lighting of houses, children's study, etc.) via a storage system (battery).Our project is strongly committed towards environmental protection and the Sustainable Development Goals, especially the goals 7 and 13. It will support the five villages of our project in becoming "green villages".
Keynotes: Solar panels; clean energy; rural areas; Burkina Faso.
Name: Aimee Chinda Lugarde
Bio/Personal Statement: A Cameroonian female, born on the 13/09/1987 and an ongoing PhD candidate at Saint Monica University Higher Institute Buea, Cameroon. She earned an MBA in Project Management by the same institution in June 2017 and a Master in International Human Rights Law by the University of Yaoundé 2 Soa Cameroon, in 2016.
A keen and enthusiastic person who has the ability to interpret, draft and negotiate legal documentation in a way which provides the highest quality of service to all. I equally have the ability to communicate in a professional manner and present legal, commercial and management issues clearly to lay people. My robust commercial outlook helps to solve legal issues practically and also an expert at advising on new areas of project initiation, planning and management. In addiction, I am an excellent team worker, flexible with a helpful attitude towards team mates. My meticulous and detailed approach to legal matters gives most of my clients’ maximum satisfaction. I possess enthusiasm, charisma, drive and a positive attitude required to withstand and be successful in the legal and management environment.
Title of Capstone Project: Decentralized Options for Rural Energy Supply Based on Renewable Energy for Cameroon: Opportunities to Enhance Economic Productivity and Income While Improving the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Universal Energy Access for Cameroon
Abstract: The main energy source used in Cameroon is still biomass for cooking and heating purposes. The majority of Cameroonians still rely on biomass, which is abundant and to certain extends renewable and affordable. Electricity and gas are still very lowly used, mostly because of non-availability and non-accessibility, especially in the rural areas. (…)
In Cameroon for example the electricity access rate is only 48.7% and in rural Cameroon about 14 million people are still without access to modern energy services. Energy needs for the isolated rural communities relies mainly on firewood and charcoal. Uncontrolled use of such biomass causes deforestation which has its negative impacts at local (land degradation), regional (air, water and soil pollution) and global levels (greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change).
In this context, decentralized options for a rural energy supply based on renewable energies will provide opportunities to enhance economic productivity and income in rural areas, while improving the sustainable management of natural resources.
This proposed project seeks to introduce and research on an innovative concept that aims at, decentralized options for a rural energy supply based on renewable energies that will provide opportunities to enhance economic productivity and income in rural areas, while improving the sustainable management of natural resources. The absence of a reliable grid and the huge existing demand on both household and productive-use levels of the rural settlements provides sufficient justification to consider this approach. Strong advantages which support this decentralized innovative model while improving the sustainable management of natural resources include the regulatory and financial ease that would accompany establishment of such a setup. This would also be coupled with the fact that solar panels will be installed at a rapid scale in this rural area and easy adaptation of the same to host PV arrays also presents itself as an advantage.
Name: Marilyn Bongmo Jaff
Bio/Personal Statement: I am 29 years old, a Rural Engineer by profession working for the Ministry of Water resources and Energy, Cameroon. My strong educational background which is a purely scientific and theoretical background and the practicality of engineering sciences (with particular study of Renewable Energy) are my driving force towards contributing to the attainment of SDG7 by 2030. I was privileged to be selected as one of the 60 participants of Open Africa Power 2019 by ENEL Foundation. My motto in life is “Do everything as if it was your last, for a better world”.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrification and solar mapping of the NDOP rice basin: a new phase for the NDOP rice milling sector and the locales at large for an emerging Cameroon
Abstract: Electric power is a key driver of economic growth and prosperity, but this is still very low in SSA especially in the rural areas. Amongst the under-served localities in electricity in Cameroon are the villages of Bafanji, Balikumbat and Bangola (in the North West region), and Bangourain (in the West Region) which are high rice production hubs for both local consumption and export. Strengthening rural infrastructure such as electricity for rice milling and rice processing facilities could render Cameroon a rice granary for Central Africa.
With the already unbundled electricity generation sector in Cameroon, and with several private investors already implementing power generation projects in several parts of the country, implementing an off-grid model to serve the local population of the Ndop Rice Basin especially for the operation of their rice mills will be an uncomplicated task as the regulations governing this sector had been reformed (in 2011) to favor private investment in electricity generation and distribution. Solar irradiation in Cameroon is estimated at an annual average of 4.9 KWh/m2/day, thus solar energy can be exploited as the reliable and affordable energy source to power the rice mills and serve other household and productive uses of the locales in the Ndop Rice Basin. Most of the milling machines used by rice millers have low power ratings mostly horse power (HP) from 20HP to 30HP, yet fully utilizing them is not possible due to power outages and high cost of electricity.
The research seeks to propose an alternative power supply to the local communities involved with rice production and processing, so as to render this productive-use activity more profitable for the people, and as well improve on their household and community power uses. It also proposes a means towards solar data collection to aid in the future development of a decision, working and sustainability tool (through the development of the Ndop Rice Basin Energy ATLAS) for all stakeholders of the energy sector in the project area and the country at large.
The methodology to be used will involve; desktop review and assessment of the solar radiation data available for the Ndop rice Basin, community sensitization and engagement, identification and assessment of the size of the fields to be used, selection of solar PV system component, designing the layout of two Solar PV mini-grid connected systems, implementation of the solar PV systems and a solar meteorological station for data collection for future development of the Ndop Rice Basin Energy ATLAS. To carry out the simulations, HOMER Pro has been proposed as the preferred modeling tool due to its comprehensive, flexible and robust nature of use.
Name: Georgies Alene Asres
Bio/Personal Statement: I have a doctor of science (Technology) in Electrical Engineering major field in Electronics Materials and Devices from Oulu University, Finland. In my PhD study, I have worked on the synthesis of a novel tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanowire/nanoflake hybrid material using chemical vapor deposition techniques. I have extensively investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of the WS2 using different materials characterization methods. Fabricating semiconductor devices in a clean room laboratory was also part of my work.
My Master degree is in Functionalized Advanced Materials Engineering from Grenoble Institute of Technology (France) and Augsburg University (Germany). I also got a B.Sc degree in Applied Physics from Arba Minch University (Ethiopia). For my Master thesis I worked on ZnO nanowire synthesis and characterization for solar cell application. I have also some experience in computational materials modelling mainly by attending some international schools. I am currently an assistant professor at Addis Ababa Institute of Technology in department of Materials Engineering. I am very much interested in materials for clean energy sources especially in solar energy. I would like to continue my research on this field and I am working on that.
Title of Capstone Project: Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy powered reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system using lake Basaka in Welenchiti (Ethiopia)
Abstract: Water plays an important role in all our daily lives and its consumption is increasing day by day because of increased living standards of mankind. It has been estimated by United Nations Organization that by 2025, nearly 1.8 billion people around the globe will face severe water scarcity. In Ethiopian nearly 61 million lack access to safe water. Ethiopia has planned to achieve clean water supply coverage at rural, urban and national levels (85 %, 75% and, 83 %), respectively at the end of the second Growth and Transformation plan. In addition, increasing access to improved drinking water is one of the sustainable developmental goals (SDGs). To achieve the target, the Ethiopian Ministry is working hand in hand with donors, non-governmental organizations and communities.
Welenchiti is a city of more than 22,000 inhabitants, located in the Oromia region near lake Basaka, 117 km from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital. Based on recent study 78.40% households in Welenchiti complain about scarcity of water and most of them get water piped from neighbourhood and the nearby villages has no access for clean water at all. The clean water demand for the communities in this region is high. The fresh water needs of the community can be satisfied if saline water available from lake Basaka converted to potable water through desalination process. This project seeks to contribute in providing sufficient safe drinking water, as well as irrigation water, to the people of Welenchiti City and the surrounding villages by using photovoltic (PV) powered reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant.
Due to absence of a reliable grid in Welenchiti PV powered desalination is optimum and cost competitive even without considering its environmental friendliness. In addiction saline lake Basaka is expanding alarmingly and threatening the people living around. This project has also a potential to mitigate this impact by reducing the lake water. Regarding the access of renewable energy source (solar) for the project, the city is located in area where there is a high solar irradiation. If implemented, the project will be the first of its kind to deploy this promising PV powered desalination technology in Ethiopia. Because of its modularity of the PV technology and solar energy source availability that is evenly distributed in the country, this project has a potential to be implemented in other rural areas in Ethiopia.
Name: Redae Fisseha Asfaw
Bio/Personal Statement: Redae Fisseha Asfaw was born in Adwa, Ethiopia. He graduated Chemical Engineering from Bahirdar University, Faculty of Engineering and started his career as a production supervisor at Almeda textiles in 2009. After 6 years working experience in Textile, Cement, tyre and sugar industries he also graduated Master of Business Administration (MBA) in 2016 from Samara University, Ethiopia. Since then he worked in different leadership positions till the last post as production team leader position in Tendaho sugar factory. At the moment he is studying his Masters in Materials and production engineering at University of Trento, Italy.
Title of Capstone Project: Grid connected solar electrification: for samara university afar, ethiopia
Abstract: Solar energy is clean, inexhaustible and environment-friendly potential resource among renewable energy options. But neither a standalone solar photovoltaic system nor a wind energy system can provide a continuous supply of energy in such a remote areas due to seasonal and periodic variations. Therefore, in order to satisfy the load demand, grid connected energy systems are now being proposed for the university that combine solar and conventional conversion units, to solve the serious problems happening right now resulting students and instructors to withdraw due to the heavy temperature for which without light and proper ventilation is hard to live.
Since the University’s community is highly affected by the power interruptions due to the heavy windstorms and unusual high atmospheric temperatures throughout the year, for which without continuous power source is hard to exist as a community member. So, this project is dedicated to propose a plan for a grid connected solar installation for University of Samara, located at the regional state capital. The installation will be made on the already existing dormitory buildings and offices as required. This will be a great place for a solar array because the panels can be installed in the building without the need for another additional site. Based on solar exposure, the city is located in one of the hottest places on earth, which is a potential area for solar energy. Considering the financial intensiveness of the project, there will be a number of incentives and other options included from the government to help persuade the University into adopting a solar project.
Name: Tigabu Atalo
Bio/Personal Statement: Holds an MBA specializing in Business Leadership and BSc. Degree in Electrical Engineering; An Energy and Power Infrastructure Practionner; Experienced Projects Manager; Channel Service and Customer Support Manager.
Title of Capstone Project: Research Proposal on Financing and Business Model impact. Assessment on Ethiopia’s National Electrification program
Abstract: There are compelling reasons for Ethiopia to reform its electricity sector sooner than later including for social, economic and environmental imperatives. Accelerating the rate of access to electricity, adding more capacity from diversified electricity supply sources and spearheading the path towards sector liberalization are the recent developments that the country aspires to achieve and enable and sustain its development agenda.
Ethiopia remains one of the primary examples of having the lowest level of electricity access coverage (44% as of March 2019) and per capita energy consumption (<100kwh) in the world although it has made commendable progress in all dimensions over the years with a public sector lead investment reaching its limit midway to the access goals of the country. Consequently, new models of project financing such as PPPs, IPPs and end user financing options that engage the private sector are becoming eminent albeit a low base demanding further clarity and maturity.
To add knowledge to the existing industry perspectives and establish a clearer understanding of the trends in the project financing schemes, this research proposal wishes to make a comprehensive screening of the available financing sources, instruments and business models; assess the viability of financial restructuring of projects to enhance project bankability; and identify the real and perceived financing barriers and risks specific to the country’s context that deter investment in the electricity sector.
The proposal also intends to explore the overall sector reform progress keeping the financing regime a real focus area, analyse the adjusted electricity tariff, estimate the current and projected cost of proving electricity, build scenario based (with a mix of assumptions of the different access pathways and combinations of financing instruments) financial business models to estimate the costs of investments and the gap in the investment financing need to reach the required access goals.
The industry’s perspective is that Ethiopia could do better if the country leverages public and concessional resources to mobilize private financing and address the barriers and the risks by the available instruments instead of paying the underlying costs directly. Part of this proposal will question these industry perspectives through targeted interviews and supplement the outcomes from the alternative business models, investigate the sector’s level of readiness for private sector engagement and assess the overall financing and business model impacts and develops matrices of mechanisms that could help effectively address them. The list of instruments to be covered includes grants, equities, debts, guarantees, insurances, results-based and carbon financing schemes, and the study will be conducted in phases.
Name: Mehari Andualem Ayele
Bio/Personal Statement: I graduated from Arbaminch University in Electrical Engineering in 2010. I have been working since then. My first career was assistant lecturer which I became a lecturer for Jimma University Institute of Technology. I have gained different communication skills with students as well as teachers during this period. Then after I was working with Huawei Technology Ethiopia plc and ZTE (H.K) Limited Ethiopian Branch which are both International Chinese companies. It gave me an exposure of working with tough conditions and working with efficient time utilization cultures. Ethiopia Energy Authority is my employer right now and I am working as Energy Research and Study Team Leader responsible for managing the study of renewable energy sources, working on energy efficiencies of locally manufactured electric appliances and name plate standardization, working on off-grid, mini-grid solar PV systems and regulations and the likes.
Title of Capstone Project: Proposal for Amendment of Development Policy for settlement (urbanization) of pastoralists in Ethiopia Using Off-grid solar PV systems, Afar region: case study for Gewane district
Abstract: Ethiopia has abundant renewable energy resources and has the potential to generate over 60,000megawatts (MW) of electric power from hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sources.
Despite Ethiopia’s huge energy potential, the country is experiencing energy shortages as it struggles to serve a population of over 100 million people and meet growing electricity demand which is forecast to grow by approximately 10 -14 % per year till 2037.
Today only 30 % of the population have access to electricity grid. This share is increasing due to an extension of the national grid on the one hand, and an increasing number of Stand-alone-systems and Mini-grids on the other hand.
Among the total population 80% of the people lives in rural areas and by which 90% of it has not access to electricity.
Even though government is taking different actions to enhance electric access capability of its citizen by establishing Universal Electric access programs (UEAP), building hydropower stations, Geothermal sites, wind stations and solar home systems (SHS), it doesn’t consider the 12 million pastoralists on its energy access plans.
Despite the fact that pastoralists in Ethiopia play a vital role on the country’s economy by supplying livestocks for export and domestic utilization, they have been economically, socially, and politically marginalized and given inadequate attention by policy makers in the past. Especially considering energy policy, they have been excluded. The government, NGOs and the World Bank have been trying to change the lives of the pastoralists using short term and long term policies, but still their lives are full of challenges and periodic deadly droughts have attacked the People and livestocks. The 2002 drought is one as an example.
This paper proposes an amendment of the pastoralist development policy towards a small scale irrigation implementation and long term settlement through off-grid solar PV construction with diesel generator as a backup. It takes Gewane district as site of case study, which is found 403km from the capital Addis Ababa. Despite the implementation of the development policies in this district, for the past consecutive 10 years, the district has been affected by drought.
Now an attention has to be given to include energy as life changing scheme for the community and the implementation of off-grid solar PV systems changes the life of the community by bringing communities together building small scale irrigation, producing cash crops and water conservation schemes as well as initiating disaster risk mechanisms.
The energy scheme also facilitates access to crucial social services such as education, health care
and water supply to the communities by constructing key infrastructure such as safe water sources, animal health posts, local clinics and schools in the district.
Name: Abeselom Ayeligne Bogale
Bio/Personal Statement: An academic background in the fields of Engineering and Commerce, which possess a working knowledge of mechanical, electrical, electronic, automation, control systems and technology management. With many years of experience in the Automotive, Electro-mechanical and Renewable energy industries. A proven track record of success and progression in my field from which I have developed and matured numerous skills including project management, problem solving, team work, communication, leadership as well as management of safety at a workplace.
Current I am working as a coordinator in the energy sector, which is mostly about electrical power production and management, in particular renewable and sustainable energies. It involves production of smart energy meters; operation and maintenance of renewable energy installations; participation in supply of gas and steam turbines for energy and industrial applications. I am always looking for and excited about new challenges to be proven they are attainable.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar PV Mini Grids to Power Reliable Water Supply in Addis Ababa
Abstract: The Akaki borehole farm comprises of 70 deep water wells producing approximately 50% of Addis Ababa City’s water consumption. Currently the Akaki borehole farm relies on the grid operated by the monopoly Ethiopian Electric Utility backed-up by diesel generators. The unreliable electricity disrupts the water supply to the City substantially and imposes a significant dependence on diesel fired generators which in turn causes adverse environmental and financial cost. Hence there is sufficient reason for introducing alternate renewable energy sources to power the borehole farm, its treatment plant and the pumping stations. Addis Ababa City enjoys a high solar radiation potential and makes a solar PV plant a suitable supplement to the existing grid power supply.
Name: Gudata Abara Chali
Bio/Personal Statement: Currently, I am working in Wollega University as Assistant professor and researcher. I hold a B.A. degree in Accounting from Haramaya University and an MBA from Arbaminch University. After finishing my master degree I am serving in higher education and have done problem solving research and provided training community services to solve societal problems especially in business related issues. I have also served as Head of Department of Accounting and Finance, Research and Community services Coordinator and Research Director positions. I have published seven scientific research papers in reputable journals and papers focus on the business, finance, credit, women empowerment, marketing strategies, costing systems, etc. I am interested to conduct a research on the investment, finance, banking, management in public or private sectors.
Title of Capstone Project: Finance as Success or Failure of Rural Electrification (The case of selected Rural Weredas in Eastern Wellega, Oromia, Ethiopia)
Abstract: Electricity is the mainstay that gears the development activities leading to improvement in quality of life. Access to electricity can bring many positive impacts including poverty alleviation and improved child education. However, rural areas of the developing countries lack proper infrastructure. The households as well as other establishments are sparsely settled that makes the extension of grid network to connect those areas are not economically viable. Rural electrification in developing countries is always expensive, requiring a high capital investment accompanied by in-depth programme planning, the purchase and transportation of the equipment and system supplies, and the procurement or development of expertise to install, operate, and maintain the systems. In addition to the up-front capital and planning costs, decentralized electrical systems, including solar home systems and other photovoltaic (PV) and renewable energy technologies are usually expensive relative to the average individual income in developing countries. Nearly all of the about 80% of Ethiopians living in rural areas have no access to electricity. Highly economic solar systems, available to rural population, generate additional purchasing power and open new financial capabilities for sustainable rural development. A lack of funds or late/badly-timed disbursement of funds in rural electrification efforts has frequently led to half-finished or low-quality components prone to breakdown. This is partly explained by the fact that off-grid solutions in developing countries often have to involve small companies that are prepared to serve small rural markets; evidently, the lower the average firm size, the more easily it gets into financial difficulties and the less the likelihood of it having access to private funding at favourable terms. Financial capacity building is in order here, as are (in selected cases) custom-tailored subsidy programs for such firms. In particular, low-interest loans are useful in securing investment in rural power projects.
Moreover, responding to users’ capacity and willingness to pay is essential. High costs of electrification will otherwise serve as an excuse not to provide service.
Name: Kibrom Tadesse Ejigu
Bio/Personal Statement: I graduated from Adama science and technology university (ASTU) with a BSc in Computer Science and Information Systems. Afterwards, I graduated with an MSc in Information Systems from Addis Ababa University (AAU). Currently, I am a PhD student at AAU Information Technology doctoral program also a lecturer at ASTU.
Title of Capstone Project: The genesis of power sector reform and Privatizations in Ethiopia
Abstract: The power sector in Ethiopia is dominated by a regulated monopoly, the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo), which serves all end-users: households, government agencies, farms, and commercial and industrial firms which was established in 1956. As a monopoly, EEPCo operates under various forms of regulatory control. Therefore, the country is living with serious power sector problems such as very weak linkage of the sector with the local industries, relatively higher electricity prices except for few jurisdiction , relatively high energy loss, and low end use energy productivity compared with other economies outside of our region, high cost of project financing , inadequate investment from within or outside the economics of these countries, wide supply and demand gap, low service quality limited role of local and international private sector etc. In the other side over the years we have witnessed high increase in annual demand for power; in excess of 600 MW per year (or an average of 25% demand growth). So much demand progression obviously demands corresponding capacity additions in almost all the value chains of the sector and this will not be possible without the participation of the private sector. Hence, the goal of this project is to develop a realistic privatization Implementation Plan that outlines the most viable long-term structure for Ethiopia’s Power sector.
Name: Fikremariam Beyene Fanta
Bio/Personal Statement: Mr. Fanta is currently working as a project manager at SILMA Electro-Mechanical Eng. He holds BSc in Electrical Engineering from Jimma University, Ethiopia and MSc in Electrical Power Engineering from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. In 2009, he joined Arbaminch University as an Assistant Lecturer where he taught courses such as Electrical Machines and Energy Conversion, Power System I and II (2009-2013). He worked at Huawei Technology as a Technical Manager for six months and promoted to Project Managerial position where he accomplished multiple projects in Somali, SSWR swap and New Site (2014-2016). He worked at Ericsson as Power Engineer in SR (South Region) and SWR (South West region) Telecom expansion project (2016-2018).
Title of Capstone Project: Electricity from Ethio-Telecom Sites (Off grid Telecom sites around Somali region, Ethiopia)
Abstract: For millions of people living in remote rural areas of Ethiopia who lack access to the main grid or cannot afford electricity, solar energy represents an important first step on energy access. Instead of relying on kerosene, candle, dry cell batteries and other fossil fuel-based sources of power, People can turn to off-grid solar power to light up their homes, watch television and charge their phones. In Somali region, 80% people living in rural areas have no access to electricity but they have network converge. Over the last four years, Ethio-Telecom expansion project across the country increased and in rural area power supply system for the Telecom site is entirely. When Telecom site location near to the community we can share the surplus power produced from site without telecom interruption. At the day time from 10 am to 3 pm when the solar radiation peak the telecom solar power supply produces surplus power. This benefits the nearby communities without buy solar panels and also without additional cost for solar installation. The only investment would be development is load regulator and DC/AC inverter. Therefore, this paper aims to design and develop power sharing from Telecom sites which used for community benefit like mobile charging station, solar water pump with charger controller and batteries with minimum costs.
Name: Hanna Mekuria Fissha
Bio/Personal Statement: As an Ethiopian and a graduate from Addis Ababa university – Institute of Technology, with an B.Sc. degree in Software engineering, I held several work experiences within leading organizations, including Orchid Business Group plc. These opportunities enabled me to gain experience in the field and learn how to serve up valuable contributions in a fast-paced, professional environment.
I am passionate about IoT, new immersive technologies and renewable energies and have an innate ability to understand my company’s and country’s needs. Providing better environment and creating a platform for knowledge sharing have my top priority. I have worked as a programmer, Network Engineer and Account manager for the past 3 years.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar PV Mini Grids to Power Reliable Water Supply in Addis Ababa
Abstract: Ethiopia possesses plentiful water resources but supplying clean drinking water to the population has always been a daunting task. The country has come a long way from using traditional untreated sources of water like springs, rivers and Lakes to modern, and to a comparatively complex, water supply systems relying on dams, borehole wells, treatment plants and pumping stations. The modernized water supply system is hygienic, available on demand and convenient and is largely made possible by access to electricity. On the other hand, the complexity and reliance on electricity creates vulnerabilities.
The Akaki borehole farm comprises 70 deep water wells producing 200,000 m³ per day which amounts to approximately 50% of Addis Ababa City’s daily water consumption. The importance of the borehole farm and its optimum operation is therefore vital to the City’s social and economic life. Currently the Akaki borehole farm relies on the grid operated by the monopoly Ethiopian Electric Utility backed-up by diesel generators. Frequent grid power outages cause a variation in the water flow rate which could lead to dry pumping and cause significant damage to the pump motors. Moreover, the unreliable electricity disrupts the water supply to the City and imposes a significant dependence on diesel fired generators which in turn causes adverse environmental and financial cost. Hence there is sufficient reason for introducing alternate renewable energy sources to power the borehole farm, its treatment plant and the pumping stations.
Addis Ababa City enjoys a high solar radiation potential and makes a solar PV plant a suitable
supplement to the existing grid power supply. To be able to provide such a capacity, the Project would need a detailed technical, engineering and financial study. The major questions that need to be answered are the subject of this capstone project.
If such a project is implemented by an independent power producer under a long-term supply agreement, it would have numerous benefits including a more reliable water supply and a reduced financial burden to the water authority. As well, the effort may lead to the first project in Ethiopia to deliver privately generated electricity to a large single client, single premises client. The experience gained may very well pave the way for similar projects addressed to industrial, mining and academic clients.
Name: Shewit Tsegaye Gebreslassie
Bio/Personal Statement: Shewit Tsegaye received Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree from Ethiopian institute of technology-Mekelle (EiT-M) in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2013 and Master of Science degree in electrical power engineering from Jimma institute of technology in 2016. He is currently a PhD scholar of power systems engineering at the Addis Ababa University and ENEL foundation/Open Africa power 2019 fellow. His research interests are integrated renewable energy systems, Artificial intelligence based optimization of power systems and Power system economics.
Title of Capstone Project: Electricity from ERTA’ALE’S Magma: A Roadmap to complete transition of Thermal Power Plants
Abstract: Renewable power generation can help countries meet their sustainable development goals through provision of access to clean, secure, reliable and affordable energy. Intensive studies are being conducted on how to harness electrical energy from renewable sources such as municipal waste, active volcano’s magma and carbon tube technologies.
The aim of this paper is therefore, to study, model and simulate magma-powered power plant which uses the temperature of magma from active volcanoes to produce artificial steam reservoir. The power plant will be modelled using actual parameters of active volcanoes’ magma from ERTA’ALE, Ethiopia, based on mature and proven technology.
To develop a thermodynamic cycle model with in a computer-aided thermodynamic simulation software in Mat lab/Simulink, a toolbox called thermolib library will be utilized. Detail design and model of components adopted from thermal power plants will be carried out. According to the results of the analysis and simulations from thermolib library, thermodynamic mass and energy flow of the resource is expected to be balanced to give an output of 150 MW gross electrical power from a single unit.
ERTA ALE volcano, 613m above sea level, is a shield volcano located at 13.6 degrees north and 40.66 degrees east in Danakil depression, Ethiopia. It is famed for its persistent lava lake which has been active during most of the past decades since it was first discovered in the 1960s. It’s apparent temperature ranges from 700 and 1070°C, and of its corresponding crust between 300 and 500°C. Radiant power output of the lake varied between 45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake.
This resource can be used to harness clean and reliable energy. The general Idea of this proposal is to exploit magma’s temperature instead of oil or geothermal source. Unlike geothermal source Magma thermal source is not limited. And being renewable is the advantage of magma over oil.
According to the most recent Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Survey, only 9 % of people living in Ethiopian rural areas have access to electricity. Erta ale is in Afar regional state and the rural areas of Afar are only 9% electrified. This project is intended to fill this gap.
Name: Keno Shiferaw Gudeta
Biography: With 10 years’ professional experience spanning the construction and commissioning of various distribution lines, substations and transmission lines, Keno Shiferaw is no stranger to electrons.
He has worked for different international construction and consulting firms from Italy, Turkey, South Korea and USA, in addition to a local company.
In his current role as an Engineering and Project Feasibility Specialist at NRECA International, he led a team of 12 engineers for geo-referencing distribution networks of the country, on which the recently launched National Electrification Program, NEP 2.0 is based.
He had also been involved as an electrical engineer in the construction and commissioning of different substations in the Ethio-Djibouti Power Interconnection Project, which is one of the first projects of the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP).
He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Title of Capstone Project: The Two-edged Sword: A better approach to providing electricity and clean drinking water for off-grid communities in one go
Abstract of Capstone Project: Ethiopia is a country of 105 million people, 85 per cent of whom live in rural areas. It has a vast territory of about 1.13 million square kilometer. Geographically, it is located near the equator the furthest tip of the country being just 150 north of the equator. Most parts of the country get a yearly average of 2,000 kilowatt-hours per square meter of solar irradiance.
The country is also endowed with vast water resources. There are 12 major river basins with combined annual run off of about 124 billion cubic meters. And there is also a significant ground water potential dispersed throughout its territory.
Despite these staggering figures, the proportion of the population with access to electricity and safe drinking water stands at 44% and 54%, respectively.
There could be various reasons for such a stark contrast between potential capacity and actual implementation. Lack of cross-sectorial approach could be one of them. There are places with access to electricity, but not to clean drinking water, and vice versa.
This project addresses the issues of lack of access to electricity and water at the same time. A remote rural area, far from the reach of national grid, with abundant solar resource, and shallow ground water potential will be considered. Within that specific area, there are villages with access to clean drinking water using solar-powered pumps. The same villages however, do not have access to electricity. There is one village, the lucky one, with access to both electricity and clean drinking water. The electricity is powered by a diesel generator that runs for 8 hours a day, while water is pumped by solar-powered pump. Yet there are others which are not lucky enough to have any of these two basic necessities.
These all are within few distance apart, in the same second-to-lowest administrative unit of the country.
It is the aim of this project then to clearly depict how lack, or may be poor, coordination between water and electricity service providers affected the residents, show how to correct that, and mainly point the way forward towards access to both for the rest of the villages in the area.
Name: Asegid Belay Kebede
Bio/Personal Statement: Asegid Belay Kebede was born in Shakiso, Oromia, Ethiopia, in 1987. He received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Hawassa University, in 2010 and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Addis Ababa Institute of Technology in 2016.
Currently, he is pursuing a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, African Railway Center of Excellence. From 2010 to 2011, he was a lecturer at Debre-Berhan University. From 2015 to 2018, he worked as a production and maintenance supervisor in Energo Transformer and Switchgear plc.
Currently he is working as a senior researcher in Ethiopian Railway Corporation and also a technical instructor at Ethiopian airlines. He has published many papers in peer reviewed international and national journals. His research interests include alternative and renewable energy, design, modeling, control, and simulation of a solar powered railway.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar-Irrigation Pilot Project in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Abstract: Ethiopia is blessed with an abundance of solar energy which is evident from the annual daily average solar irradiance of 5-6.5 kWh/m 2, which is one of the highest in the world. This corresponds to a total annual electric energy production range of 1825-2373 kWh/m 2, this makes the utilization of solar energy as one of the best choices to be used as a source of energy. Realizing this, the project proposal presents the installation and implementation of sustainable, affordable and effective photovoltaic systems which will allow the Wollo farmers to double or triple the growing season for vegetables and other crops that have high value during the dry season.
Name: Dawit Dagnew Kebede
Bio/Personal Statement: Dawit Dagnew Kebede was born and raised in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. He has over eight years’ experience in ICT, communication, marketing, research, and knowledge management focusing on renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change in Ethiopia. Dawit earned his bachelor’s in business administration and master’s degree in marketing management from Addis Ababa University. Dawit is working as knowledge management and communication advisor in a renewable energy access project. Combinig his education and experience Dawit engaged in the research and policy works focusing renewable energy, climate change advocacy, and digitalization. He has been part of nationwide research and study works like improve cook stoves sustainability survey and SE4ALL global tracking framework. He is passionate about inclusive green economy, entrepreneurship, and sustainable consumption topics from research to policy work and have a strong passion for environmental protection.
Title of Capstone Project: Why a Renewable Energy Policies and regulation need for Ethiopia?
Abstract: Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic located in the Horn of Africa, and the second most populous nation in Africa with about 100 million inhabitants (World Bank 2017). Still 80% of the population lives rural areas. Despite Ethiopia’s huge energy potential and the undergoing construction for energy generation, Ethiopia is one of the lowest in the world with electric generation and access. Therefore, people relying on traditional fuels for cooking and lighting, so energy is prevalent poverty due to the lack of access to electricity.
A renewable energy policy framework and reform for is important for the development as well as for a universal energy access. This is important to overcome uncertainty and inconsistency about targets and policies, including retroactive changes, significantly hamper the renewable energy expansion, as support schemes or procedures and the unclear lower confidence amongst investors and developers.
The research aims to identify the need for a renewable energy policies and regulation for Ethiopia as well as develop a renewable energy policy recommendation that is suitable to the Ethiopia situation. Thus, the research will employ a qualitative research method to collect the data and analyse. This will be carried out by interview and conduct a desk review for data collection and qualitative content analysis to analyse the current energy policy and energy access programme of Ethiopia, scientific researches and best practise renewable energy policy and project reports.
Keywords: Ethiopia, Renewable Energy, Energy Policy, Renewable Energy Policies
Name: Sinafikish Lemma
Bio/Personal Statement: I am Sinafikish Lemma, living in one of the regional state of Ethiopia, Hawassa. I acquired BA degree in Economics, MA degree in Management and currently pursuing MSc. in Agricultural Economics. I have worked for more than 9 years in governmental and Non-governmental organizations under the social and economic thematic areas. I do have experience of providing training on social and economic aspects of development in a sector of Agriculture, renewable energy, food security and women empowerment. Furthermore, during my work experience I developed very good exposure of social interaction and communication skills with Ethiopian Local community cultures and languages. I am conscious in managing time, team work and coordination. My life facts are never giving up, commitment and focus to get what I deserve. For me, success is creating positive influence through positive thinking and action.
Title of Capstone Project: Drivers of Energy demand and Off-grid Electrification for Rural community of Ethiopia – The case of Gibe district.
Abstract: Ethiopia has an estimated population of more than 100 million people, wih annual population growth rate of 2.5%. The economy of the country is dependent on agriculture with over 80% of the population living in rural areas. The rural households who are connected to the national grid accounts only 10%. The traditional biomass accounts for more than 90% of total primary energy in Ethiopian households, which is affecting the country’s physical landscape and contributing to indoor air pollution.
Lack of access to electricity is a major constraint to economic growth and increased welfare in Ethiopia, particularly for the rural community. The use of traditional wood-fire cook stoves and open fire is leading to serious health problems, especially for women and children who are majorly exposed. A further problem consists in the strenuous task of collecting firewood for cooking is usually carried out by women or children, which is leading to injuries, pregnancy complications and even maternal mortality.Women and childrens are mostly facing the risk of injuries due to kerosene burn in the rural areas of Ethiopia.
In parallel with this, one of the significant problem related with lack of energy access faced by women’s and girls in rural Ethiopia is absence of milling service. Most of the flour required by households is processed by women using the traditional stone grinder, which is backbreaking and time-consuming. They spent much time to get milling service, the time travelled by foot is so boring and tiresome. There are times even the women /girls spent a night in searching milling services. When there is no electricity in their nearby town the challenge is even worse. Therefore, this project research proposal strongly argues for substantial need for off grid electrification through renewable energy sources for rural community of Ethiopia to resolve the above-mentioned and related rural community problems.
With respect to this, the project research objective is to identify the driving factors of energy demand and off -grid electrification for rural community in the case of Gibe district, Ethiopia. Multiple stage sampling technique will be used to select 458 sample households based on sample size determination formula for the research study. Econometric model with multiple regression will be employed and the data will be analysed using Stata software. Apart from the study, the project will propose hybrid of solar and wind sources considering its reliability, integrity and efficiency of the electric power system for the rural community. The project is expected to have a positive impact on social, economic and market development for the households, community, government and private sectors.
Name: Mizan Welderufael Massa
Bio/Personal Statement: Mizan Welderufael Massa is an Electrical Power Professional at Ethiopian Electric Utility (EEU), currently working as Automated Meter Reading (AMR) Project Lead that installs energy meters at substations since February 2016. Mizan has worked for 4 years as System Operation Engineer, at the National Load Dispatch Center (NLDC), the sole Transmission System Operator (TSO) in Ethiopia. She has also hands-on experiences at the Energy Management and Distribution departments.
Mizan is a Mandela Washington Fellow-2016 from Ethiopia, studied Energy track at UC Davis. She has a Masters degree in Electrical Power Engineering from Addis Ababa University. In addition, Mizan co-founded an association named ‘Ethiopian Women in Energy (EwiEn)’, a network that connects professional Ethiopian women in the energy sector. Mizan wants to enter in to Renewable Energy entrepreneurship that can fill the gaps in the energy sector in Ethiopia.
Title of Capstone Project: Floating Solar PV (FPV) on Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Ethiopia – Case Study: FPV at Tekeze Hydro Electric Power Plant
Abstract of Capstone Project: Hydropower represents still the largest share of renewable electricity generation globally, with over 1170 GW of installed capacity, 842 GW is hydro reservoir based, and the rest is Run-of-River capacity. In Ethiopia more than 90% of electricity generation comes from hydro; 5.2% and 0.1% power is generated from wind and geothermal sources, respectively. Ethiopia is endowed with abundant renewable energy resources and has a potential to generate over 60,000 MW of electric power from hydroelectric, wind, solar, and geothermal sources. Currently the country has about 4,200 MW of installed generation capacity, which is not sufficient to serve a population of over 100 million. The current GTP-II has a new target to increase generation capacity to over 17,000 MW by 2020, with an overall potential of 35,000 MW by 2037.
Floating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, also known as ‘floatovoltaics’, first gained popularity in Japan as a solution, driven mainly by land-use constraints, to take advantage of unused water surfaces on freshwater reservoirs. As the price of solar panels dropped 75% and PV module efficiency increased from 14% to 21% between 2010 and 2017, a new market for floatovoltaics quickly emerged. The hydropower industry is now beginning to realize the significant opportunity presented by retrofitting floatovoltaics due to the abundance of available water surfaces on hydropower reservoirs. In the last three years, more than a hundred floating PV plants have been commissioned and global installed capacity was estimated to have reached nearly 600 MW by mid- 2018.
The flexibility of operation of hydro reservoir based power plants and their current connection to grids facilitates supplying the demand from solar during peak irradiation hours, while balancing grids with hydropower during low/no irradiation times, and providing a zero impact area for PV power plant deployment. The PV power plants could also prevent water evaporation, further benefiting hydropower production and water conservation by increasing water availability.
By coupling floatovoltaics with an existing hydropower plant in countries like Ethiopia that are endowed by hydro potentials, floating solar power can be generated on the available reservoirs during the day while the reservoir stores up water and energy for release during peak demand periods.
Name: Daniel Mulugeta Soma
Bio/Personal Statement: I am a recent graduate of Chandigarh University India, with a Master Degree in Mechanical Engineering and specialized in thermal and energy engineering. I have taken professional advantage training on Solar PV Systems Design", Installation & Maintenance from GSES India. I completed my bachelors’ degree from Mekelle University (Ethiopia) in Mechanical Engineering. I have undertaken internship at the infrastructure and construction leading company, orchid business group. I have expertise in the use of AutoCAD, SOLIDWORKS and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). As my master thesis I studied the computational fluid dynamics analysis of porous media burners for domestic cooking application. I am currently employed in orchid business group as a junior energy business specialist. My career goal is to gain a role which allows me to further my knowledge and skills, as well as increased responsibility at an energy based market- both in renewable and gas industries.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar PV Mini Grids to Power Reliable Water Supply in Addis Ababa
Abstract: Ethiopia possesses plentiful water resources but supplying clean drinking water to the population has always been a daunting task. The country has come a long way from using traditional untreated sources of water like springs, rivers and Lakes to modern, and to a comparatively complex, water supply systems relying on dams, borehole wells, treatment plants and pumping stations. The modernized water supply system is hygienic, available on demand and convenient and is largely made possible by access to electricity. On the other hand, the complexity and reliance on electricity creates vulnerabilities.
The Akaki borehole farm comprises 70 deep water wells producing 200,000 m³ per day. which amounts to approximately 50% of Addis Ababa City’s daily water consumption. The importance of the borehole farm and its optimum operation is therefore vital to the City’s social and economic life.
Currently the Akaki borehole farm relies on the grid operated by the monopoly Ethiopian Electric Utility backed-up by diesel generators. Frequent grid power outages cause a variation in the water flow rate which could lead to dry pumping and cause significant damage to the pump motors. Moreover, the unreliable electricity disrupts the water supply to the City and imposes a significant dependence on diesel fired generators which in turn causes adverse environmental and financial cost. Hence there is sufficient reason for introducing alternate renewable energy sources to power the borehole farm, its treatment plant and the pumping stations.
Addis Ababa City enjoys a high solar radiation potential and makes a solar PV plant a suitable supplement to the existing grid power supply. To be able to provide such a capacity, the Project would need a detailed technical, engineering and financial study. The major questions that need to be answered are the subject of this capstone project.
If such a project is implemented by an independent power producer under a long-term supply agreement, it would have numerous benefits including a more reliable water supply and a reduced financial burden to the water authority. As well, the effort may lead to the first project in Ethiopia to deliver privately generated electricity to a large single client, single premises client. The experience gained may very well pave the way for similar projects addressed to industrial, mining and academic clients.
Name: Adey Getachew Robele
Bio/Personal Statement: Adey Getachew is a project coordinator at Ethiopian Electric Power, transmission and substation implementation unit. While working in the unit she has contributed to the successful completion of two Mega projects, 400/230/132/33/15kV Power transmission projects. She is also licensed electrical installation designer, working with different construction consulting firms as a freelancer. She received her first degree in Electrical Engineering from Bahirdar University Engineering Faculty. Currently she is a post graduate student in Power Engineering at Addis Ababa University Institute of Technology, working on her final thesis paper. She is a member and co-founder of Ethiopian Women in Energy Network (EWiEN), a platform that connects Ethiopian women professionals in the energy sector. She is a participant in Open Africa Power 2019 program. On her spare time, she enjoys reading books, socializing and travelling.
Title of Capstone Project: Proposal for Integrated Stand- Alone Systems into Mini-grid for Ziway Separate Woredas.
Abstract: Ziwayis a town and separate woreda located 162km from the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. The town has supply from the national grid, however, the separate woreda has no access to electricity. The community in the area usually suffers from food insecurity and deep poverty. As a result, a foreign NGO has been working in the area with the intent to assist on the race against poverty. Part of the NGO’s project phase a solar drier was provided to the locals ave and credit cooperative, to add value on the production of red-pepper. Since the time the solar driers have been introduced to the cooperative, the production and delivery to market rate of the red-pepper has increased. However, due to limited function of the solar driers the community still suffers with no access to electricity.
In this proposal it is intended to introduce customized stand-alone solar system to the community by modifying the solar driers, that is by changing the solar collecting component and incorporating PV arrays, and connect the stand-alone systems to a mini-grid that will collect the surplus power from each stand-alone system and supply it to a mill plant. Here the stand-alone systems are designed to supply basic electricity to the households, means lighting and socket for light load appliances. This will enable to collect surplus power through the grid in order to supply to the mill plant.
A hybrid of Private-Community generation-distribution grid operation model is proposed to increase the project success. A business-driven strategy is also followed for the operation Model.
Name: Adamu Girma Tafesse
Bio/Personal Statement: A highly motivated and hardworking individual, who has recently completed in university Levels, achieving excellent grades in both theoretical and practical lessons by mechanical engineering, besides my regular lessons taking short-term technical courses. Seeking an apprenticeship in the electromechanical industry to build upon a keen scientific interest and start a career as a senior electromechanical engineer and I have taken part in many activities that have helped to build my teamwork, leadership and time management skills. Problem-solving and creative ways during my studying years lead to help society, as well as myself. Currently, I am working in the energy business and I am learing my post-graduate program in mechanical design and eventual career goal is to become a fully qualified and experienced engineer.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar PV Mini Grids to Power Reliable Water Supply in Addis Ababa
Abstract: The Akaki borehole ranch is one of the main source of Addis Ababa’s abundant water resources that covers half the city’s water consumption which mainly depends on the grid and backed-up by diesel generators yet providing clean drinking water for the city has been constantly troublesome task. The main reason of Blackouts is electricity interruptions which causes a variation in the water stream rate. This damages the pump motors and also disruptions of supply and reliance on generators, which have high fuel cost. The City has a huge potential to implement solar PV plant, hence introducing alternate renewable energy sources to power the borehole ranch and its gear will provide suitable supplement to the existing grid power supply.
Name: Milkias Berhanu Tuka
Bio/Personal Statement: Mr. Milkias Berhanu has over eleven years of experience in government, and private institutions, primarily as an academic lecturer at the Adama Science and Technology University (ASTU), one of two Science and Technology Universities in the country. He holds a Masters degree in Electrical Engineering from the Adama Science and Technology University, where he focused on electrical power systems.
While working as a lecturer, he was appointed as an associate and head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering department of ASTU’s position for three years. He was also a member of academic standard, quality assurance, and relevance committee. In addition, Milkias has served as the electrical team leader and a power expert for the Adama-II wind farm project, which produces 153 Mega Watt power under a consultation work carried out by a joint venture of the Adama Science and Technology University and Mekele University, Ethiopia where Hydro China, CGCOC was the main contractor. Milkias took a six weeks training that aimed to empower young leaders from Sub-Saharan Africa through academic coursework, leadership training, and networking opportunities at University of California, Davis under the flagship program of the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI), the Mandela Washington Fellowship 2018. Milkias is now a Ph.D. candidate in Electrical Engineering with focus on renewable energy, specifically on wind energy.
Title of Capstone Project: Impact assessment of grid-coupled wind turbines on weak grids of Ethiopia
Abstract: This research will focus on the effect of grid-connected wind turbines on weak grids of Ethiopia with a specific focus on power quality issues. Special attention will be paid to voltage conditions, flicker, fault ride-through and harmonics.
Currently, there is a lack of complete technical materials regarding wind turbine (WT) connections to the Transmission System Operators (TSO) and Distribution System Operators (DSO) especially in developing countries that could help power engineers in the analysis of the impacts of grid-connected variable speed constant frequency wind turbines, and also orientate the grid connection design of wind turbines and wind farms in the national electrical network. In addition, there exists a lack of complete standards in connecting wind farms with existing grids in the country and their impacts during fault scenarios and actions accordingly.
This was not a big concern in Ethiopia in the past as generation to distribution is mainly owned by a single authority. However, as an Independent Power Producers (IPP) are getting into the industry, surely TSO, grid, and DSO connection issue will be raised. Thus, this research proposal on grid connection for wind farms and analysing their impacts aim to fill this gap by presenting the main methods for their integration and the tools used for estimating their impact upon power quality by modelling and simulating a complete system.
A model of grid-connected wind turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) will be developed in MATLAB-Simulink/SimPower software. The complete grid-connected wind turbine model of the research focus includes the wind speed model, the aerodynamic model, the transmission system model, models of the electrical components, namely the DFIM/PMSM, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) voltage source converters, transformer, capacitor, and the control system. The model results will be validated against the actual results of the wind farms that can be measured and obtained from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.
In this regard, this research aims at investigating the impacts of wind farm sites in Ethiopia focusing at Adama-I and Adama-II of which the machines are PMSM and DFIM respectively.
Name: Endale Zegeye Werede
Personal Statement/Bio: Born in Ethiopia in 199, Endale Zegeye Werede graduated in Computer Science (Bsc) in 2012/2013. He holds a MBA, Specialized in Project Management by Collaboration Program from the Ashland University of Usa and the Leadstar College of Ethiopia, and studying Energy Regulation in Florence School of Regulation by Enel Foundation of Italy Sponsorship. He started his career in 2013 as an Assistance Instructor in different colleges, both in Kampala and Addis Abeba. As a Department Head, Deputy Manager and Project Manager in United Ltd, Knabs Bpi, Visionnet he worked with different projects in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda by lead and support operational projects and research and development. He is currently a founding member and General Manager of UTOP Center of Research & Education in Addis Abeba. He is also working as Country Promoter in Ethiopia of Voice of African Youth for Good Governance (VOAYGG), which is a NGO working to promote accountability and transparency in governmental institutions of all over Africa.
Title Of Capstone Project: Change diesel power system mills to solar powered mills in northern rural areas of Ethiopia
Abstract of The Capstone Project: This paper considers the feasibility of transforming mill power source from Diesel to Solar (photovoltaic) power systems for the usage of inaccessible very rural areas of northern shewa communities in the Amhara,oromia and tigray region of northern Ethiopia. The demand for improved solar mills will likely increase when diesel mills become too expensive for the rural poor, whose real per capital income has been declining in recent years. The solar mill’s social value is expected to rise when imported fuels become more expensive than before. Large-scale use of imported fuel has been precluded by the ever growing shortages of foreign exchange. Today, fuel accounts for about one fifth of the value of total import merchandise. Therefore, it is high time to explore the economic potential of small-scale power facilities in rural industrialization but due to country’s road problems, in which animals are the only transport, it is very difficult to electrify using hydro powers, so the only solution was diesel powered mills. In those inaccessible rural areas of Ethiopia, on-farm consumption accounts for as much as 80% of the total output of grain. Quite a substantial proportion of rural households still hand-grind grains, using a stone grinder, or pound the grain into flour, using pound and pestle.
However, in northern Shewa, grain mills are widely used. An important characteristic of the food processing industry in Ethiopia is the scarcity of commercial milling. Custom milling, which is done by private or cooperative mills in exchange for payment of milling fees, is still the dominant form of food processing in the country. An Ethiopian woman rarely buys flour from shops or mills. Two alternative types of technology are available in the food-processing Industry in rural shewa woredas: hand grinding (or pounding) and diesel-engine-powered mills due to geographical and infrastructural problem in those towns which are atleast 40 kilometer far from main road, no electricity, road and water. The only transportation is animal transport.
The purpose of this study is to explore the hidden potentials of a microenterprise to buy our solar powered mills for the community use by identifying and analyzing the complementary roles of solar mills, with a view to instigating further research in the solar based grain processing industry. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to characterize the Solar grain-milling industry in Ethiopia and to show the problem women and kids are suffering to mill grains; (2) to identify and explain the relative Market advantages of solar mills; (3) to identify and explain the major constraints on the expansion of solar mills; and (4) to propose for further research to be done on alternative designs and implementation for solar mills for the consideration of promoters of rural technology in Ethiopia.
Name: Filagot Tesfaye Woldeselassie
Bio/Personal Statement: Filagot Tesfaye, a practicing professional Electrical Engineer with Bachelor and Master Degree in management and leadership with over a decade of experience. She has served in different engineering positions in the industry, construction and consultancy sectors. Filagot specializes in designing, supervising and inspection of electrical systems, fulfilling both management and technical roles. Filagot has a wide-range to engineering professional skills, including a well-developed demand-side energy expertise in the Ethiopian power sector. Her previous work includes the design, supervision and comissioning of a large-scale electrical projects in industial parks, stadiums, housing projects, universities, government- and private-owned buildings.
Filagot has founded ON ENERGY Ethiopia, a firm that develops energy efficient electrical design and off-grid energy alternatives in newly designed buildings and infrastructure. Filagot’s aim is to change how customers consume energy to reduce dependence on non-renewable energy sources. Filagot is an executive member of Ethiopian Society of Electrical Engineers (ESEE). In her spare time, Filagot conducts community classes to educate citizens about clean energy and energy efficient consumption.
Title of Capstone Project: Roof top solar energy and diesel generator hybrid for Debrebirhan industrial park in Ethiopia
Abstract: Ethiopia’s economy has demonstrated growth. One of the contributors is the industrial sector which is open to international investors. Ethiopia’s GTP II plan has enforced the construction of industrial parks in all regions of the country. Learning from history and experience of developed countries GTP-II implementation strategies give priority focus to the generation of sufficient power for both domestic consumption and export to be transformed from a developing country to a lower-middle income country by 2025.
To attain this, Ethiopia is leveraging on its industrial development projects throughout the country. The recently inaugurated Debrebirhan industrial park is one of the 11 industrial parks that predicts to increase country’s export income. The first phase which comprises 8 industrial sheds of each 5000 sq. mm area and auxiliary buildings demands 1.2MW without considering the machineries and equipment’s to be installed by investors for textile and agro products manufacturing.
Power shortage challenge is one bottleneck that hinders the country’s plan to move forward in the anticipated speed. The design of the park is completed considering full power supply from the grid and diesel generator for backup power. The power demand of Debrebirhan Industrial park when fully loaded and operational is 50MW for first phase. However, the current scenario shows that the park’s construction phase is completed but power supply and connection is not yet available.
The purpose of this project is to design and research the application of hybrid system by photovoltaic and diesel generator as a backup energy system for Debrebirhan Industrial park. Backup power is an essential part of electricity supply for such kind of facility that serves international investors to guarantee continuous power supply. The result of this research will act as a reference point for future researches implementing hybrid systems in industrial settings and can also be a pilot project to proof the reliability of renewable energy technology. Hybrid systems that depend on photovoltaic (PV) are considered the most popular among other types of renewable systems. The main advantages of this technology is its low maintenance costs and low pollutant emissions. The availability of the sun throughout the year is also important factor when proposing this solution where daily solar radiation is about 5.264 kWh/m2 in the area. Hence, this research will demonstrate the positive impact of solar energy on business profitability by making the park to have its own renewable electricity source for backup power.
Name: Maame Tabuah Ankoh
Bio/Personal Statement: Maame Tabuah Ankoh is an energy and infrastructure professional with over thirteen years of experience in the development and implementation of diverse infrastructure projects such as large hydropower and solar projects. She also has experience in the development of energy policies stemming from power market analysis, resource planning which involves several resources including energy efficiency, renewables energy, coal and natural gas markets.
She is presently the Renewable Energy Specialist on the USAID Integrated Resource and Resilience Planning Project in Ghana which provides technical assistance and capacity training for Ghana Sector agencies in long term power resource planning. She is directly involved in power system planning and modelling which looks at the least cost generation and transmission options for the country.
Title of Capstone Project: Ghana: Challenge with Renewable Energy Implementation
Abstract: Ghana is considered to be one of countries in the Sub-Saharan Region with a relatively stable political and economic environment and with the country looking to industrialize, enormous growth in the electricity sector is anticipated. In 2018, Ghana’s total on-grid electricity consumption was about 16TWh and is projected to double to about 31TWh by end of 2030. With an installed capacity of about 4313MW (3868MW of dependable capacity), the energy mix in the country is primarily dominated by thermal generation at about 61%, followed by large hydropower at about 39% with renewables being just 0.1%.
The country in a strive to ensure that the development of economy is supported by more sustainable sources of energy, the country put in place numerous policies, strategies and regulations which was to guide the sector in scaling the uptake of renewable energy technologies. Some of these included the enactment of an RE Act (Act 838) which obligated electricity distribution companies and bulk customers to procure some specified percentage of its total electricity purchase from renewable energy sources. It also called for the establishment of a feed-in-tariff scheme which was to ensure the sale of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. The SREP-Ghana IP amongst several other programs were also developed and was aimed at unlocking financing opportunities in accelerating the development of a sustainable renewable energy sector. The more recent Integrated Power Sector Master Plan and the Renewable Energy Master Plan developed for the sector all called for the significant scaling up of renewables in the energy mix of the country.
The enormous effort put into the creation of the strategies and policies to create an enabling environment to mobilize investment in the renewable energy space is reflected in the RISE (Regulatory Indicator for Sustainable Energy) score of 63.69 the country earned, placing it second after South Africa for the Sub Saharan Region. The RISE which is a set of indicators which aids in the comparison of national policy and regulatory frameworks for sustainable energy (World Bank Group 2017).
Although all indications point to the fact that the stage is set for renewables to take off from the ground, the scaling up of renewable projects have been a very slow one. By the end of 2017, the proportion of renewable energy capacity installed as a percentage of total capacity was about 0.6%. Of this percentage only about 38MW represented grid connected renewable generation capacity with the rest 16MW being off-grid and distributed solar PV and mini-grid systems. Although an additional 20MW was added 2018 it still did not significantly shore up renewable in the generation mix and remained less than 1%. In contrast over, 880MW of thermal power plants were added to the power system from 2015 to 2018 (representing over 20% of installed capacity).
There have been several speculative reasons given to the slow deployment of renewable technologies in the country and this study has the primary objective of assessing the major inhibitory factors to the scaling up of REs specific to the Ghana context and identification of gaps in existing RE policies and actual implementation processes which might have contributed to this. It will seek to make recommendations for the improvement in the implementation processes with the ultimate aim of significantly increasing renewables in the country’s energy mix.
Name: Kwadwo Brentuo Owusu
Bio/Personal Statement: Kwadwo Brentuo holds a Masters Degree in Public Administration and also Bachelor’s degrees in Civil Engineering (from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Ghana) and law (LLB). He started his career in Engineering at the Bui Power Authority (State-owned power utility) in 2008 as a Supervising Civil Engineer, and worked hard to supervise successfully the construction of the 400MW Bui Hydroelectric Plant.
In July 2017, he joined the Renewable Energy directorate of the Ministry of Energy Ghana to work on Energy Policy and regulation. He is currently the Manager in charge of Renewable Electricity and itsinvolved in the coordination of renewable energy investments in Ghana as well Energy Policy Planning & Project Management. He has special interest in the areas of environmental protection and Climate Change.
Kwadwo is an avid lover of sports and loves to run marathons and half marathons.
Title of Capstone Project: Provision of Investment-based Information-A Positive Step in Attracting and Coordinating Investment in Biomass Power Generation in Ghana.
Abstract: The utilization of biomass as a source or energy has become very critical for Ghana in meeting its energy goals as well as realizing its commitment to international treaties such as the Paris Agreement. The Challenge has been the absence of information; technical and financial for potential investors to make informed and concrete decisions to invest. The research proposal suggests the Ministry of Energy to facilitate an independent research into the viability of the development of Biomass for Energy production in Ghana. Ultimately, the research findings will be used as a basis for organizing an investment forum to attract potential investement in Biomass for power generation.
Name: Mercy Ndinda Kiio
Bio/Personal Statement: Mercy Kiio received BSc in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and MSc in Electrical Engineering from Jomo Kenyatta university of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT-KENYA) in 2010 and 2017 respectively. She is currently pursuing her PhD Degree in Electrical Engineering (Power Systems Option) with Pan African University Institute for basic sciences, Technology and Innovation (PAUSTI-Kenya). She is currently serving as a lecturer in JKUAT and a member of Electrical Installations and Distributions Technical Committee in Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). Her research interests include, Renewable Energy, power systems and control Engineering. She is in good standing with Engineers Board of Kenya.
Title of Capstone Project: Electricity from consumers: productive use of energy in kenyan rural areas based on swarm electrification concept.
Abstract: Sustainable energy access will play a critical role towards attaining Kenya’s vision 2030 and successful implementation of the government’s ‘Big Four’ agenda. This proposed project seeks to utilize the rapid growth of rooftop solar home systems within the country to build a micro grid, through linking several households in a village or community, hence scaling up production for productive use such as irrigation. The scaling up concept is a bottom-up approach popularly known as ‘Swarm Electrification’. Without innovative energy access solutions, Kenya’s vison 2030 will forever remain to be nothing but just a vision in rural areas.
Name: David Kiplagat Kirop
Bio/Personal Statement: Proactive and diligent servant leader. The OAP 2019 has pursued Master of Science in Computer Systems, Bachelor of Technology (BTech) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Telecommunication Engineering) as well as Programmable Logic Control (PLC). He has also pursued courses in information technology as well as certifications in Security, Cloud and Databases. He has a wealth of experience in the field of Electrical, Information Technology, Telecommunications and Instrumentation, acquired from a number of Telecommunication and IT firms. He is passionate about innovations, technical explorations, education and leadership and has been involved in various Automation and Robotic projects that involve all the processes of project development cycle.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar powered electric fence in Cherangani Hills Forests
Abstract: Kenya has made tremendous progress towards achieving universal energy access. However, due to the growing population, climatic conditions and other socio-economic factors, major challenges in accessing energy are still being experienced both in rural and urban areas. This commitment can be seen through the numerous clean energy projects that have been completed throughout the country such as wind, hydro, geothermal and solar power projects.
Energy regulation also plays a major role. Government organs such as the parliament and senate as well as entities such as Energy Regulatory Commission of Kenya (ERC) and Kenya’s Ministry of Energy have continuously looked into matters of design, installation and maintenance of clean energy solutions. They have tackled issues to do with Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) among different players in the energy sector and other sectors.
Because of huge interest in these areas, regulation may involve limiting the players and adopting worldwide standard procedures. Therefore, having strategic partnerships are important when considering common interests, experience, reputation and capacity.
Natural resources in any country are important in preserving heritage and livelihoods. Preserving them and proper use is the commitment that every citizen or leader should agree to for sustainability and viability. Furthermore, these resources may not only have positive or negative effects for the country, but also the neighbors, region and the world. Forests, rocks, minerals, lakes and mountains that preserve the wildlife as well as being water towers and sources of many rivers are examples of natural features that give great source of posterity and hope.
However, there are many challenges affecting the natural resources. These challenges are mainly man made. Over exploitation and misuse of the natural resources have led to dire climatic and health conditions. Droughts, drying rivers, extinction of species and myriad of emerging diseases have been common.
Electric fence has been used in many places including homesteads, premises and farms. They have proved to be useful in enhancing security. Solar powered electric fence in Cherangani Hills Forests will be an innovative solution to many challenges faced by communities living around these forests as well as ensuring that they are not overexploited and misused. It will give immense benefits as solar is a clean, reliable and affordable energy source. In addition to limiting access to the forests and providing easier management, the communities can benefit immensely from such investments through community initiatives and agreements.
Name: Betty Muthoka
Bio/Personal Statement: Betty Muthoka is an Electrical Energy engineer and a project manager with a particular interest in energy access and renewable energy. She works closely with both public and private sector stakeholders in the energy sector for consistency of approach in the development/management of assignments geared towards deployment/uptake of modern energy solutions. Currently, she is an Energy Expert with the World Energy Council, the largest global network of energy leaders and practitioners dedicated to delivering a sustainable energy system for the greatest benefit of all.
Betty holds a B.Eng. in Electrical & Electronic Engineering from The Technical university of Kenya and an MSc. In Energy Technology from JKUAT.
Title of Capstone Project: Biogas to Bio-methane – Purification of Biogas for Clean Cooking and Electricity Generation.)
Abstract: For households without access to grid-based electricity or gas for cooking, traditional cook stoves are typically fueled by wood or charcoal, generating considerable indoor air pollution. Cook stoves fueled with biomass provide complete combustion, significantly alleviating health and environmental problems. In many developing countries, biogas cooking can also improve the livelihoods of rural households, as by-products of biogas production such as slurry and fertilizer boost agricultural productivity. Modern biogas use, meanwhile, reduces the amount of time spent by women and children collecting wood.
Despite these clear advantages, the potential of domestic biogas has not been fully exploited. Constraints include: limited awareness about biogas applications; the initial cost of installation; lack of skilled labor for installation and operation; inadequate and intermittent government support; biogas contaminants and competition from fossil-based alternatives. However, pre-fabricated biogas units constructed of fiber, plastic or lightweight bags can be cheaper to install, while investments in the biogas value chain, from installation to maintenance, can reduce costs further.
Biogas is a developing alternative energy source produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter by bacteria. While several factors affect biogas production, optimal conditions for its yield need to be attained and maintained to ensure effectiveness. Biogas is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) with trace amounts of other toxic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The proposal also aims at Purification of Biogas to Bio-methane. In this case the purified methane will be used for clean cooking and to produce electricity by using it as a fuel to run a biogas generator for domestic energy uses.
Name: Julius Gathua Ndirangu
Bio/Personal Statement: Eng. Julius Ndirangu is a young Kenyan electrical engineer who believes Africa has immense resources that can effectively be harnessed to enable universal access to electricity in the near future. He was selected to participate in the Open Africa Power 2019 program. He received his BSc. and MSc. Degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT), Kenya in 2009 and 2018 respectively. He is currently pursuing PhD in Electrical Engineering from the same university. He is a registered professional engineer in Kenya with wide experience in Electrical Building Services Engineering and Electrical Power System Design. He currently works as a Standards Compliance Engineer in KPLC, the utility company, and is a member of Solar Market Committee of the company. He has published several research papers with IEEE. His current research interests include renewable energy integration and measures to improve performance and reliability of power system distribution networks.
Title of Capstone Project: Smart Solar Powered Milk Cooling Plant for Increased Returns for Farmers in Mahianyu Village in Laikipia County - Kenya
Abstract: This project proposes a smart solar powered milk cooling plant to increase returns from milk production to the farmers in Mahianyu village in Laikipia county - Kenya. The village is underdeveloped in terms of road network and electricity grid connection. The proposed plant will be used to store the evening milk from the farmers, thus enabling them to sell it the following morning at market price. Additionally, the proposed cooling plant will have USB plug ports for charging mobile phones, radios and solar lanterns for the villagers at a small fee.
Name: Carol Awuor Ofafa
Bio/Personal Statement: Carol Awuor Ofafa is an Electrical and Electronic Engineer at the Kenya Electricity Transmission Company (KETRACO). She serves in the Power Systems Planning and Design department as a protection engineer. She recently completed her M.Sc. Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Management at the University of Glasgow where she was exemplary and received the graduate award for leadership. At KETRACO she is responsible for design of high voltage transmission infrastructure as well as on-site supervision of construction, commissioning works and testing. Carol graduated from the University of Nairobi in 2013 with a 1st class honours in Bachelor of Science Electrical and Electronic Engineering. She was the winner of the 2008 United World College, Lester B. Pearson Scholarship award and the 2017 Commonwealth Scholarship Award to attend University of Glasgow. Amongst other achievements, Carol was part of the team that won the 2017-2018 Collaborative innovation (Co-Lab) challenge at the University of Glasgow. She is passionate about mentorship of women in energy and community development through the involvement of women in development of reliable and efficient energy infrastructure. She is a mentor at Akili Dada (Kenya) and FemEng (University of Glasgow) where she uses her skills and abilities to influence the lives of young girls interested in STEM related courses. This passion for mentorship also led to various other opportunities such as invitation to speak at the Africa Power roundtable conference in Sandton, Johannesburg 2017, a panelist at the Women in extractives conference in Kenya,2017 and one of the invited speakers at the Kenya mining forum 2017.
Title of Capstone Project: A Ride in the Sun:Innovative off grid solar powered charging station for electric bodaboda’ s (e-boda), lamps and mobile phones for Malindi, Kenya.
Abstract: Kenya has the highest rate of connectivity in the region. Owing to electrification projects such as last mile by Kenya Power, Vision 2030 electrification projects by the Kenya Electricity Transmission Company and an increase in stand-alone off grid renewable generation, the national access rate has grown steadily in the last five years from a low of 32 percent in 2013 to as high as 75 percent by the end of April 2018 both for grid and off grid solutions. This indicates that Kenya is well on its way to achieving universal access, due to accelerated investment in the distribution network and increased investment in renewable energy generation. Similarly, the World Bank’s Global Partnership Output-Based Aid program that targets informal settlements in urban areas and low-income households in the rural areas has gone a long way in increasing access in these areas. However, in Coastal Kenya and especially rural Malindi, electrification rates remain low at 5% for rural households and 22% for rural businesses.
Malindi, a coastal town located 120km northeast of Mombasa town, has a population of over 207,253 and is the largest urban center in Kilifi County. Tourism is the major Industry in Malindi. The thriving tourism industry in Malindi, is linked directly to the economic development of the region. However, unreliable electricity in the region is estimated to be as low as 43% and this has affected household income directly and indirectly. Similarly, due to the nature of the small roads in Malindi Old town, where several tourism sites are located, the locals and tourists alike are not allowed by the council to use motor vehicles within the city. Therefore, the demand for motorcycle (bodabodas) and tuktuk transportation is high. The locals and tourist’s dependence on motorcycles and tuktuks for local transportation has created employment opportunities for the youth. The management of the transport industry is done majorly by SACCO’s who procure and maintain these bodabodas. The bodabodas mostly run on diesel and petrol. However, in recent years there has been fluctuation in fuel prices causing the petrol/diesel bodabodas to be unpopular and therefore causing an influx on electric bodabodas imported into the country due to the lower cost in maintenance and lack of fuel needs.
This recent introduction of electric motorcycles, though few, has the potential to cause an increase in energy demands by the communities in the region. This is due to the charging needs for batteries used in the electric motorcycles. Similarly, households heavily rely on kerosene for lighting and diesel generators for commercial enterprises. Without reliable electricity, the new-found popularity of electric motorcycles could decline therefore, causing an increase in contribution of local air pollution and no viable solution for the immediate access to reliable electricity for the rural and urban households.
Significant off grid solar PV projects have been explored by independent organizations through signed PPA’s with KPLC. However, these do not support much productive-use applications and especially transportation. The existing off grid projects have expected high costs per unit kWh than regulator approves prices for grid licenses.
This proposal seeks to introduce a research design for a solar powered charging station that will provide optimal reliable charging option for e-bodas through a swapo and go initiative for fast and reliable operation, charging option for lamps and mobile phones for both rural and urban Malindi. Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. The charging stations which will be strategically located to increase access to the most remote areas in Malindi as well as the urban areas, are designed to provide street lighting where they stand which further increases security and accords longer business days for the local businesses.
The proposal explores a business model that has swappable battery charging option to accord the commercial users a fast and flawless operation. The proposal seeks to further incentivize Cooperative societies (SACCO’s) to increase procurement of e-bodas from local manufacturers who have recently launched design and manufacture electric motorcycles and thus further incentivize the use of the charging stations. The charging stations, in the future, are expected to provide services to the grid, such as frequency response or peak shaving (if the C-rate of the motorcycles’ batteries allows). These services, which are used for flattening the load profile, may have huge benefits, such as increasing asset utilization of the national grid, and allowing a higher integration of renewable energy onto the grid. However, these services will require the necessary policy to be set up, and thus are not expected to be bankable in the short term. In that light, the charging stations will be used for deferring grid investment and allowing a faster uptake of the new technology which will bring about huge environmental benefits, and boost to the local economy.
The successful implementation of this project, though not the first of its kind in Africa, would be the first in Kenya and would set precedence for the application in areas with similar context in Kenya. It will demonstrate the productive use of renewable energy and provision of electricity at subsidized cost in low and middle income areas while further creating job opportunities while maintaining financial viability.
Name: Joel Rutto Sutter
Bio/Personal Statement: Eng. Joel Rutto Sutter is an accomplished Electrical, Electro-Mechanical and Energy expert. He is a Drilling Engineer at Geothermal Development Company (GDC), with 9 years’ experience in Engineering practice; Rig Drive systems, Electrical Plant, geothermal drilling engineering, power system design, control, analysis, training and research. He is curriculum reviewer/developer in the department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (JKUAT). Sutter is a registered Engineer with Engineers Board of Kenya (EBK) and Professional Technology Engineer (KETRB). He has published widely peer reviewed engineering journal papers. Joel is PhD candidate (Electrical Engineering), JKUAT He holds a MSc. in Electrical Engineering from the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical and Communications Engineering from Moi and Masinde Muliro University’s and member of both the Institution of Engineering Technology of Kenya (IET) and Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK).
Title of Capstone Project: Hybrid renewable energy system for application in livestock industries in rural Kenya value addition via milk and meat processing
Abstract: Inadequate access to reliable and affordable electricity services in rural areas significantly diminishes the opportunities for the value addition and development of many economically productive activities, including agro-enterprises like milk/meat processing and packaging. Reliable and affordable energy is a vital input to many agricultural and post-harvest processes. Adding energy to agricultural production and processing, often the largest employer in rural areas, is an important way to grow beyond subsistence farming and the supply of raw materials toward the potential of added value. Fortunately, there are decentralized and commercially proven energy alternatives including those that harness renewable energy. Many of these are now technically and financially viable, even in remote rural areas. This project proposal outlines hybrid these technologies and their appropriate applications in the field and includes best practice examples used on a significant scale in processing of livestock products in remote Kenya. It explores the possibilities of establishment of off grid hybrid systems mainly comprising wind, solar and biomass that will create a value addition regime for milk and meat.
Name: Evan Wanjiru
Bio/Personal Statement: Dr. Evan Wanjiru is a Future Energy Leader, Lecturer and an Energy Consultant with many years’ experience in the academia and industry in Africa. He has been leading various energy efficiency activities including renewable energy projects and developing energy management training curriculum in various sectors in Kenya. Other activities include energy training various industry practitioners, carrying out energy audits as well as measurements and verification. Dr. Wanjiru is also a researcher and a lecturer where he is supervising a number of undergraduate and postgraduate students. His current research projects include renewable energy storage optimization, grid-tied and off-grid energy management systems, renewable energy for industrial thermal energy supply and waste heat recovery. Other research interests include e-transport, demand response, energy modelling and data analytics.
Title of Capstone Project: Clean electricity for remote tourist lodges: off-grid electrification with e-transportation and demand response concept for kenyan remote tourist lodges
Abstract: Safari lodges are different from many types of accommodation in that they are mostly in remote locations that are sensitive to human impact and have no grid connection. To minimize environmental footprint, electricity provision in such lodges is one area that needs to be given more attention. Currently, such lodges in Kenya and many Sub-Saharan countries rely on on-site diesel generators to provide their electricity needs. This leads to high carbon footprint, while the lodges are subject to volatility in the fossil fuel market which ends up marginally increasing their operating cost. Worse still, transportation of diesel to the lodges’ sites runs at a risk of spilling and greatly affecting the ecosystem while diesel generators themselves lead to noise pollution during operation. Maturity of renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind and biomass can greatly minimize the negative effects. In fact, more and more safari lodges have started adopting renewable energy systems across Sub-Saharan Africa. Reduction in the cost of renewable energy components such as solar panels and storage systems will economically profit the lodges by reducing their electricity generation cost. Importantly, studies have shown that the core business of hotels is positively affected by green initiatives such as adoption of green energy.
With rising competition in the tourism industry, there is need to offer innovative products besides lowering operating cost. Such innovation could be in having complementary efforts such as electric game viewers or electric boats. There are actually reports of several pilots of such complementary efforts, which can only make sense if electricity generation is from renewable sources and not from diesel generators.
This research seeks therefore to introduce an innovative approach to providing electricity to remote lodges while considering environmental and social factors of the surrounding community. Lack of grid power connection to the lodges and the surrounding community and existence of huge demand for electricity both for household and productive uses provides adequate justification for exploring this research. The remote lodges are to act as anchor loads for the mini-grid system which would be powered from existing renewable energy systems. The hybrid mini-grid will be designed to have energy storage system in the form of the complementary electric vehicles that could be used in a particular lodge to further enhance income generation. Such vehicles could include go-karting, game viewing or quad bikes. Their operation will however need to be optimized in order to ensure sufficient power is being stored for periods with no renewable energy present. The surrounding community, if any, will also be powered using the mini-grid and a possible business case will be explored. Training of technicians from the surrounding community on retrofitting of fossil powered vehicles to be electric, where possible, will have positive impact in terms of job creation. Furthermore, successful implementation of the research project will be the first of its kind and will set good pre-eminence to similar projects in other parts of the world. In addition, it will be possible to demonstrate that innovation in adoption of renewable energy can further lower the cost of the project while providing reliable electricity to lodges and surrounding community, which would also lead to a better business case to an investor.
Name: Felix Khembo
Bio/Personal Statement: I am a programme management professional with an Mphil in Programme Evaluation from the University of Cape Town, a Bachelors degree in Social Science (majoring Economics) from University of Malawi and a Diploma in Accounting from the Malawi College of Accountancy. I am currently pursuing a PhD in Programme Evaluation at University of Cape Town. I have over 8 years of experience in project appraisals, risk assessments, programme management, research, development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks, monitoring programme performance and evaluating programmes. More than three-quarters of my work experience has been obtained in the energy sector in Africa, Malawi after serving for Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi and later, Electricity Generation Company (Malawi) Limited as a Senior Economist.
Title of Capstone Project: A Techno-Economic Feasibility Study for Integrating Existing 49.3MWof Thermal Diesel Power Plants in Malawi with Solar Photovoltaic and/or Wind Power
Abstract: The research project entails investigating the feasibility of integrating existing utility-scale 49.3MW of thermal diesel power plants in Malawi with solar photovoltaic and/or wind power. The primary objective of the project is to enhance universal access to electricity in Malawi by sustainably delivering affordable power through reductions in operating costs (fuel) of diesel power plants and minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The feasibility study will use load profiles, solar irradiance and wind speed data, economic and various technical data to simulate and model an integrated system of solar PV and/or wind power with the diesel power plants of a national-wide utility called Electricity Generation Company (Malawi) Limited (EGENCO). The system modelling and optimization process will be carried out using HOMER and WAsP hybrid decision support tools. The study project, which will be implemented by EGENCO planning officers, is expected to take a period of about 6 months.
Name: Chimango Maleta
Bio/Personal Statement: Chimango is a qualified Energy Economist. He has a Bachelor’s Degree in Economics obtained from the University of Monash in South Africa, an Honours Degree in Development Theory and Policy and a Master’s Degree in Development Theory and Policy. His BCom Honours research focus was in identifying, analysing and evaluating the key issues and debates around biofuel production and identifying socio-economic opportunities for community participation in Malawi. His Master’s degree research focus was on the Case for Alternative Sources of Liquid Fuels & Petro-chemicals and the Development of Regional Hydrocarbons Infrastructure in the SADC, with a Focus on Malawi. His current role at CIRD is Project Manager for Energy. He has been responsible for leading several consultancies undertaken by the firm such as Malawi country assessments, off-grid demand studies for small-hydro, solar, and centralized and decentralized Biofuel plants. He is also the lead developer in a Biogas project for electricity generation and fertilizer production in Malawi.
Title of Capstone Project: Biogas to Power Project: A case for a Mini Grid in Chikwawa
Abstract: Biogas can be used in a combined heat and power process to generate electricity.This is a mature technology that has been implemented in several regions across the world. The utilization of this technology poses a good opportunity for development and growth of biogas plants in Malawi. The technology remains underutilized in Malawi despite significant potential. Malawi’s livestock population and agricultural activity mean the country has an inexhaustible source of biological waste that can be used as feedstock to produce bio-gas that can be used as a fuel in a combined heat and power process. The production of biogas can justify the development of a mini-grid and a case for cogeneration Illovo, a sugar company in the southern Malawi. The lower Shire in southern Malawi is home to 70% of Malawi’s cattle population, 980 000. The population of cattle is distributed across small holder and large scale farms of 2-20 000 cattle in size. The required feedstock is therefore available in centralized and decentralized pockets; and if waste collection models are applied correctly and feedstock can be guaranteed then this project could provide the community with an alternative power source. The excess gas produced can be compressed into composite cylinders that the community can utilize for clean cooking, powering domestic generators and can in future be utilized as a vehicle fuel.
Name: Meriam Hamdi
Bio/Personal Statement: Meriam is a sustainable energy engineer from Morocco with a two-year experience in the technical, managerial, and economic aspects of renewable energies and energy efficiency. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Engineering and Management Science, and a Master of Science in Sustainable Energy Management from Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco. She worked as a Project Assistant at the Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE) in Cairo, Egypt. Before that, she was a research and business development intern at RCREEE. In parallel to her graduate studies, Meriam acted as a part-time energy engineer in two UNDP- and government-funded projects in the south of Morocco. Through her work, Meriam is interested in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa and the Middle East, namely affordable and clean energy (SDG 7), sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and climate resilience (SDG 13).
Title of Capstone Project: Parabolic-Dish Concentrated Photovoltaic System for Industrial Applications in Morocco – Recycling Satellite Dishes
Abstract: In Morocco, a fifth of the total energy was consumed by the industrial sector in 2017. Since most industries rely on both heat and electrical power from the grid for their processes, a hybrid solar energy system is suggested. The proposed solution is a parabolic-dish concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) system. Using second-hand satellite dishes covered with adhesive mirror films, a CPVT prototype can be assembled in the country using national skills and local components and can be tested in an industrial setting.
Name: Paul Adedeji
Bio/Personal Statement: Paul Adedeji is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. He received his Masters Degree in Industrial and Production Engineering in 2016 and his first degree in Mechanical Engineering, 2011. He is research interest is in machine learning in hybrid renewable energy systems optimization, artificial intelligence, energy-based facility location, systems optimization, and process engineering. He has published journals and conference papers in some of these fields. Paul is a registered engineer under the Council for Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) and a member of Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). He is currently working on spatial-based renewable energy system optimization. He is a talented saxophonist who plays both the Classical and Jazz music.
Title of Capstone Project: Intelligent energy consumption management system: a case study of Nigeria and South Africa
Abstract: The energy system is a dynamic system, of which inefficiency in one of its components causes a ripple effect on the other components. Effective power generation, transmission, and distribution without effective and efficient use of energy from the end-user makes the system non-sustainable. This project proposes an intelligent demand response model for prepaid smart meter users, which is user-inclusive and user schedule specific but dynamic in operation. The model inclusively prioritizes energy consumption from different electrical appliances via different buses in the house and integrates it with the pattern of use and user’s schedules. It maximizes the use of available appliances in the home within the space of the family budget for the month. It is expected that the project when hardwired and implemented will improve energy efficiency with less of human inputs and maximum cost savings in Nigeria and the global community at large.
Name: Abel Airoboman
Bio/Personal Statement: I have a Master Degree in Power and Machines and presently a PhD candidate with my research interest on reliability of electric power systemsnetwork. My focus will continue to be channelled towards carving a nichethat will guarantee reliable power supply and sustainability in the energyindustry especially in my home country and in the world at large. At this point, I pledge to be among the energy experts that will make this come toreality in the nearest future.
Title of Capstone Project: Modeling an off-grid solar system for energy poverty reduction in Ovbiogie Community, Nigeria.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to carry out assessment, auditing, clustering and design of solar PV module suitable for Ovbiogie community, a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. The community is said to be partially electrified and depends mostly on the use of solid biomass fuel and kerosene lamps as their source of energy. In order to achieve the aim of the study, experimental analysis was carried out to determine the tilt angle of the proposed PV panel consequently, the data obtained from the experiment was transported to the Matlab 2015 environment from which the consumption rate at various energy clusters were determined. Results from the paper revealed that an energy demand of 50.4kWh/day, 247.1kWh/day and 559.0893kWh/day for clusters A, B and C Respectively. Further results showed that maximum efficiency of Solar PV panel will be achieved when the Solar PV is placed at a tilt angle of 21.50. A peak period of energy consumption in the community between 11:00am and 3pm was also established. This paper can therefore serve as useful guide for energy planning, for investors as well as for the purpose of expansion.
Name: Alexandre Olatunde Akolo
Bio/Personal Statement: Alexander is an experienced professional with demonstrated history of working in the Nigerian Power Industry. He is a team player skilled in negotiation, power contract administration and settlements, electricity economics and research. Currently, he is the Technical Assistant to the Bureau of Trade and Investments, Embassy of Brazil in Nigeria. His role entails providing strategic support on potential trade opportunities between Nigeria and Brazil across diverse sectors include rural electricity sub-subsector. Prior to this, he worked as a Contracts Management Analyst at the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading (NBET) Plc. where he administered electricity trades to the tune of N54Billion to Distribution Companies and International Customers.
Alexander possesses a B.Sc. Economics and M.Sc. Energy Studies degrees from the University of Jos and University of Ibadan. He is currently a Doctorate Candidate in Energy Studies at the University of Ibadan where he specializes in Electricity Economics. His ongoing research covers the economic viability, risk assessments and socio-economic impacts of Isolated Mini-Grid projects in Nigeria.He is a member of the Nigerian Association of Energy Economics, Global Association of Risk Professionals and the Energy Institute. Alexander’s other research interests include but are not limited to Climate Change, Alternative Vehicular Fuelsand International Trade.
Name: Samson Oluwasegun Masebinu
Bio/Personal Statement: Samson is a young professional with keen interest in the management of process, energy and commercial activities toward delivering of energy projects as well as ensuring their effective operation and maintenance. He has a strong knowledge in the conversion of organic waste to biogas, solar PV, solar thermal and wind energy. Also, from previous projects with data analytics and economic modelling, he has gained knowledge in valuing equity and debt, to determining the levelised cost across portfolios and optimal decision criteria with appropriate econometrics. He has insight into risk analysis and management. He is conversant with the energy sector in South Africa and Nigeria. He aims to become an energy expert in sub-Sahara Africa, delivering various types of energy projects. He is registered with the Engineering Council of South Africa.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrifying Education in Nigeria: Transferring Knowledge and Electricity to Communities
Abstract: The paralysis of the electric grid in Nigeria has limited access to electricity across sectors. This hindered access has affected the acquisition of skills and appropriate knowledge dissemination to Nigerian students across all institutions of learning. With only 25% of the 1.9 million students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria housed within the university residences, the remaining students reside in private accommodations around the University precinct. Due to the location of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which are often sited at the outskirt of the city, access to electricity by students in private accommodation has been seriously hindered because these university precincts are new developing areas. Even on-campus accommodations are not spared of the lack of electricity supply, hence, student resolves to the use of cell phone flash light, portable power bank (<0.04 kWh capacity), and small mobile rechargeable lamps to study at night. Several hours are spent to get these devices charged at any location where a petrol/diesel generator is being used. In the process, useful academic time and mental energy is lost. This lost time and energy impact negatively on the student capacity to accumulate knowledge. This problem is what this Open Africa Power capstone project set out to solve.
To proffer a solution and meet the basic electricity need of Nigerian students, a hybrid microgrid (Solar PV and Diesel power generator) is proposed. This proposal established that on average a student requires between 0.0917 – 0.2601 kWh/day to meet their basic electricity needs. Based on this established average, between 123-348 MWh/day is required by students in tertiary institutions to meet their basic electricity need. The proposed microgrid will be sized to meet the need of 100 students of the Federal University of Technology Akure in a pilot project. The student will charge a portable battery at the micro grid facility twice in a week. The portable battery will be of a light weight and have an interface that provides power to the student phone, reading lamp, an extra bulb for illumination, a tablet and/or a laptop. Two sizes of the portable battery were proposed (60 Ah/12 V and 100 Ah/12 V) and the microgrid will be adequately sized to produce 37.61 kWh/day with 2 days autonomy. The detailed study will involve collection of relevant data, optimized system design, business model development and project implementation schedule. This proposal further highlights the extended benefit of electrifying education in Nigeria. That is, not only will the student spend more time acquiring appropriate knowledge, the stress to source for electricity along with the psychological impact will be reduced. Also, the acquittance with the microgrid plant will provide the needed hands-on knowledge to replicate such systems in their local communities according to the business model that suit such areas and provide skilled manpower to the Nigerian workforce.
Name: Ojemeni Ujunwa
Bio/Personal Statement: Ujunwa Ojemeni is an impact investing, energy and development expert with experience in the areas of opportunity maturation, financing, and policy. At the Office of to the Honourable Commissioner for Energy & Mineral Resources Lagos State, she drives policies, investments opportunities and implementation strategies to deliver reliable energy to the citizens of the State. She is also an Advisor with the Private Finance Advisory Network (PFAN) - the multilateral, public-private partnership hosted by United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) focused on bridging the investment gap between investors and entrepreneurs and project developers by facilitating investment into promising clean energy and climate change projects.
She was previously the Senior Investment Associate at All On, responsible for driving clean energy investments opportunities from origination to closing as well as providing strategic, governance and operational support to All On’s investees. Before then, she was involved in energy infrastructure Project Development and Project Financing at Axxela Limited, and Management Consulting at KPMG. To promote the participation of women in the energy sector, she founded the African Women in Energy Development Initiative (AWEDI Network) focused on promoting the growth of women in the sector through mentorship programs, career sponsorship (acceleration), networking opportunities, professional development and leadership training for women at all stages of their energy careers and for female students at the secondary and tertiary levels.
Title of Capstone Project: Last Mile Energy (LME) Solution– An Innovative Distribution Energy Access Model anchored on Agro-processing via Agricultural Aggregators in Nigeria.
Abstract: The LME model proposes a solution whereby energy enterprises become sub-franchisees of the incumbent Electricity Distribution Utilities providing reliable energy using the most appropriate energy supply option at suitable locations in Nigeria. To ensure viability, the model is premised on productive use of energy; LME enterprises support the financing of agricultural equipment and appliances for smallholder farmers working with existing well-established agricultural franchise companies, leveraging their franchise structures to ensure payment for the energy supplied.
Name: Gemma Ituze
Bio/Personal Statement: Ms Gemma Ituze got her bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering with a first-class honour from former Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) in2013, Kigali, Rwanda. She received a Master Degree in Electronics Science and Technology from Beijing Institute of Technology in 2015, Beijing, China, and completed her second Master Degree in Energy Engineering from the Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (PAUWES), Tlemcen, Algeria.
Gemma carried internships, at Rwanda Broadcasting Agency in2012, and at Rwanda Energy Group in 2017. She also worked as a volunteer intern at Centre de development des energies Renouvelables in Algeria during her Master program.
Gemma is currently involved in teaching and research in daily activities at the University of Technology and Arts of Byumba. Her interests include renewable energy resources and hybrid systems.
Title of Capstone Project: A Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic-Bioenergy System for Powering Kabasega village
Abstract: The use of energy has always been important to improve the living standard of human beings. Relying on energy generated from fossil fuels has resulted in the reduction of fossil fuel reserves, the change of climate due to the pollution of the environment and to financial instability due to its cost fluctuation. From the presented challenges related to the use of fossil fuels, renewable energy resources have been thought as solutions. On the other side, because of the renewable source intermittent character, it is difficult and rare for one single renewable energy source to supply clean, reliable and cost-effective power. Thus, a combination of multiple power resources can be a good way to provide a solution.
The electricity access in Rwanda is still low; only 23% of the population has access to electricity. In remotes area, the situation is even worst; access to modern energy services is practically inexistent. The rate of electrification is extremely low. Renewable energy, by its availability and its adaptability to the remote areas, is the best way to get these regions out of the energy poverty and to improve the quality of life of their population.
The proposed project aims to deal with this issue for the case of Kabasega Village in Gicumbi district Northern province of Rwanda. An off-grid hybrid system based on renewable energy resources solar PV and biomass with a Fuel cell as a backup is proposed. The target of this project is first to evaluate the renewable energy resources in the chosen area in order to determine its potential in meeting the local energy needs. After that, a survey needs to be conducted to determine the village energy load demand. HOMER software to be used to optimize a suitable system that meets the requirements. The implementation of this project will be innovative and the first in Rwanda after its successful implementation it can be implemented in other areas having the same characteristics with Kabasega village.
Name: Fundiswa Mthethwa
Bio/Personal Statement: I obtained my BSc Engineering (electronics) Degree at the University of KwaZulu Natal in South Africa in 2011. I then joined Eskom (South Africa Power Utility) Distribution in 2012 as an Engineer in training where I received a formal training thoroughly as an engineer in training for 18 months. After successfully completed training, I was appointed as a Field Service Engineer in Eskom Distribution Mpumalanga Operating Unit in Secunda Sector which I am still based at.I am registered as a candidate engineer with Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). I have submitted my dissertation for my MSc postgraduate studies in Electrical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa through an Eskom EPPIE (Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute) program. My research field is based on smart grid for distribution network which is Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR). I am a member of IEEE, IEEE Women In Engineering, SAIEE and Cigre. I have presented and published papers on a number of local and international conference.
Title of Capstone Project: Bizana Solar Powered Multi-Purpose Portable DC Pump
Abstract: Efforts in improving poverty and inequality in South Africa (SA) will never be realised unless the issue of service delivery in different communities is addressed, particularly access to water and provision of electricity. Electricity and Water are fundamental elements of rural area development and food security. Access to electricity and water has been a challenging issue in South African rural areas. Due to the unavailability of electricity and water sources for crops irrigation most of the inhabitants of South African rural areas are threaten with poverty and low income. Since poverty reduction, clean water and energy are global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 1, SDG 6 and SDG 7), it is important that responsibility is taken in ensuring that there is sustainability of energy in the country in terms of both capital and lower costs to consumers. Besides progress that has been made since 1994, there are still challenges that are lying ahead.
This proposal report focuses on an innovative design of Solar Powered Multi-Purpose Portable DC Pump for rural community of Bizana village. Access to household electricity and irrigation water are more vital when measuring living standard of the household that has cash crops farmed at the backyard. The analysis involves time series from various data sources produced by Stats SA in tracking progress achieved as far as energy and water are concerned. The proposed model will be used for household backyard crops irrigation through drip irrigation system during the day and electricity like lighting, mobile charger and radio at night time using the battery.
The package will be individually owned by each household. The solar Photo Voltaic (PV) Panel through DC pump controller drives a DC pump to pump water from a hand-dug shallow well (6 m to 15 m) to an elevated tanker for irrigation during the day and charges the battery as well for electricity for lighting at night. This will help small backyard farmers at Bizana with shallow water pump up to 1 litre per second of water to their crops using the power of the sun. This will significantly change the life of women by farming three to four times a year cash crop vegetables and selling to local market. This multi-purpose system will bring socio-economic development to the Bizana community. The package can be used in every rural community in the Sub-Saharan African countries who has shallow well at backyard.
Name: Thabane Hendry Shabangu
Bio/Personal Statement: Experienced Lecturer with a demonstrated history of working in the higher education industry. Skilled in Electrical engineering, Energy Systems, Analytical Skills, Customer Service, and Strategic Planning. Strong education professional with a Master Degree focused in Power Systems Engineering and water distribution networks from the Tshwane University of Technology.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrification of a rural Machadodorp village using solar PV panels: towards universal energy access.
Abstract: Rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to electricity and are mostly situated in remote areas far from the grid and will have to wait for several years in order to be connected to the grid. With the south African national power utility (Eskom) struggling to catch up with the increasing demand for supply, off-grid projects can help provide access to clean and reliable energy for these communities. A hybrid solution using solar PV panels coupled with a diesel generator is proposed for a rural community in Machadodorp in Mpumalanga province. This project and similar projects in other communities will meet one of the sustainable development goals to provide universal access to electricity by 2030.
Name: Raymond Kaswaga
Bio/Personal Statement: I am a lawyer from Tanzania who is so much interested in seeing Economic, social and cultural rights are observed and realized especially in the developing countries. I work very hard and I am charming and humble at the same time. I hate corruption and I want Africa with accessible and affordable renewable energy as I am aware that it is one of the best ways to eradicate poverty in Africa. I like to see the south and north collaborate to achieve this practically.
Title of Capstone Project: Ensuring financing and accessibility of renewable energy: a comparison of laws and practices between Tanzania and Italy
Abstract: Tanzania is among many African states that suffer the inefficiencies in the renewable energy (RE) sector despite being endowed with abundant, high quality renewable resources which could play a significant role in meeting the country’s energy demand and propel living standards to the level of industrialized countries by 2050. This means however, that an average annual investment of US$9 billion is needed, to reach the 100% RE. In order to provide 100% RE which is affordable for all, additional financial means are necessary. A new model focusing on an agreement between MDBs and Central Banks from the industrialized world outlines how to unlock this necessary investment to implement 100% RE for all by 2050 (World Future Council: 2018).
The race from poverty to prosperity is very difficult without enough RE that has fewer negative impacts on the environment. Tanzania has its own energy policy and regulation in so far as energy sector is concerned trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and Resilience. In Italy there has been tremendous development in the RE sector unlike Tanzania. The intended research will try to find a solution to this.
The 2009 Italian National Renewable energy Action Plan outlined existing and planned developments for encouraging RE use in Transport sector. The Italian government has supported RE projects with a range of economic incentive schemes that have simplified administrative procedure for the construction and operation of RES plants (e.g., green certificates) and have favoured RES plants over traditional thermoelectric plants in many respects (e.g., priority dispatch ). This is not the case in Tanzania as the transport sector is still facing a lot of challenges in so far as the RE is concerned. There has been an increase substantial increase in RE projects in Italy in the past decade, resulting in the use of more RE sources (RES) in all sectors (heating, and cooling, electricity and transport).
The share of RES in the Italian energy mix has more than doubled in the past decade, already outpacing EU and Italian government RES targets for 2020. In 2017, around 31 percent of Italian gross electricity consumption was from RES. The researcher wants to study in details as to how that was possible and not in Tanzania and therefore, to come up with the best suggestions.
The researcher intends to review the energy policy, laws, regulations, treatises and practices of Italy in comparison with that of Tanzania for purposes of enabling Tanzania to find the weaknesses in its policy. The research will also look at on RE in Tanzania and Italy again for purposes of electrification of Tanzania so that she may get rid of energy problems to meet it development goals.
The research will look at the effectiveness and efficiencies or otherwise of the banking laws, land laws, investment laws, business laws, commercial laws, tax laws, environmental laws as well as other important laws in relation to RE.
Name: Izaiah Mulenga
Bio/Personal Statement: Izaiah Mulenga is an Energy Consultant specializing in all forms of Energy, off grid and on grid systems, Energy feasibility studies, Design and Installation of Energy systems, Energy integration and sustainability, Energy investment options, Energy Efficiency, Energy Regulations and Legal analysis, Technical Standards and Quality Assurance, Power Purchase Agreements and related Connection Agreements, Energy Management System (ISO 50001), Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Information Security Management Systems (ISO 27001). He possess excellent skills in project design, management and implementation, data management and analytical skills, market and investment analysis skills at an expert level having worked with international, regional and local organizations such USAID-Power Africa under the Southern Africa Energy Project (SAEP) and Africa Electrotechnical Standardization Commission (AFSEC) – An African Union (AU) Arm responsible for electrical technical standards.
Title of Capston Project: Solar PV as a Distributed Generation Technology in Shopping Malls
Abstract: To support the sustainability of businesses and the economy at large, effective solutions that promote the provision of reliable and quality electricity must be sought. Energy is the essence of the economy and a crucial input to nearly all of the goods and services produced, therefore with access to reliable and affordable energy services, local entrepreneurs and companies of any size can generate local jobs, income and, thereby, promote sustainable local development.
The research proposes the use of renewable energy distributed generation technologies (self-generation solutions) in business firms and particularly for lighting and other small essential loads that would ensure business continuity especially in shopping malls. Lighting requirements are generally in the range of 3 W/sq. ft for most shopping malls, which can easily be met by Solar PV generation. Distributed generation systems are modular and flexible and can include multiple generation and storage elements (in hybrid configurations) in order to guarantee supply every day of the week. Often, shopping malls are vulnerable towards increasing grid electricity prices, intermittent grid power and are over dependent on expensive diesel backup power. With diesel power fluctuating, shopping malls are always at the risk of higher operating costs and the research proposes the switch of fuel to solar since shopping malls in most cases have abundant rooftop space both in the mall buildings and in parking areas and these are ideal for solar power generation.
Name: Christine Juta
Bio/Personal Statement: Christine Juta is a passionate Renewable Energy Engineer, based in Zimbabwe’s capital, Harare. A function of academic excellence, ambition and curiosity, Christine is an advocate of energy access for all who believes in the liberating power of quality education. She is a STEM Ambassador for the African Union/Centre for Girls and Women's Education in Africa.
Christine was awarded the Silver Shield in the 2017National Engineering Students Awards Competition hosted by the Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers. She works as a Programmes Officer for a local NGO, Ruzivo Trust in the field of Renewable Energy Policy Advocacy and Climate Resilience and is studying towards a MSc in Renewable Energy Engineering with the University of Zimbabwe.
She is also part of the Africa Matters Ambassadors Program, which is dedicated to changing African narratives by equipping Africans with leadership skills and grassroots projects in African communities. Christine is a part of the Future Africa Forum where she contributes opinion pieces on Energy and Development and was recently selected to be a Changemaker for the African Leadership Institute's Project Pakati.
Title of Capstone Project: Renewable Energy for Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (RE4STEM)
Abstract: Renewable Energy for Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (RE4STEM) is premised on the provision of clean energy services in order to increase the uptake, participation and retention of women in STEM fields. The project places energy access at the centre of provision of quality education in underserved communities because the socio-economic future of rural and peri-urban communities lies in the ability to embrace Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education as the main drivers of economic development. RES4STEM affords women and girls in rural and peri-urban Zimbabwe access to clean energy services through a hybrid system comprising a Solar PV System for electrification and water pumping, a communal biodigester for generation of biogas as an alternative cooking fuel and a STEM Technical and Vocational Education Training centre.
Zimbabwe remains a very patriarchal society with women and girls at the centre of core domestic chores which include, fetching water and cooking. Not only does this have serious health and environmental impacts, but it also denies young women and girls in underserved communities, adequate time to engage in extra-curricular STEM Education training. This project therefore considers the gender aspects of the energy-education link and researches the potential of access to clean energy services in contributing towards moving Zimbabwean women and their families out of poverty. Clean energy services reduce the time spent by children (especially girls) and women on basic survival activities such as cooking, gathering firewood and fetching water, lighting increases security, permits home study, and enables the use of educational media and communications, including information and communication technologies (ICTs). RE4STEM affords beneficiaries more time to engage in technical vocational training programs at the STEM learning centre which will be housed in the community. To ensure sustainability and community ownership of the project, the women will receive training on the maintenance of biodigesters, marketing of biogas stoves and installation of rooftop solar PV systems. The research is expected to determine the configuration that will give the minimum levelized cost of energy at the required reliability of 99%.
Name: Thembinkosi Maphosa
Bio/Personal Statement: Thembinkosi Maphosa is a holder of a B.Com degree in Marketing and Economics from Great Zimbabwe University. He is also a holder of a Master of Science degree in Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management from University of Zimbabwe. Currently, Maphosa is studying towards attaining a PhD in Management and Energy Efficient Interventions at the University of the Western Cape.
Since 2017, he has been working as a Tutor in the Economics and Management Sciences Faculty at the University of the Western Cape. Tutor in Business Research Methods and Operations Management.
Title of Capstone Project: Sustainable financial mechanisms for energy efficient interventions projects in low-income communities: case study Kuyasa, Cape Town
Abstract: Sustainable renewable energy projects need to be sustainable on all levels: the financial, economic, social, and environmental levels. This study has explored financial mechanisms other than the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to finance energy efficient interventions projects in low-income communities in South Africa. A critical retrospective analysis is reported of a energy efficient intervention in the Kuyasa community, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, in which 2 309 houses were retrofitted with solar water heaters, compact fluorescent lights, and insulated ceilings. The project was registered as a CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN-FCCC). Installations were completed during 2008 – 2010 by project implementer South South North. However, the combined international and national Certified Emission Reduction (CER) revenues realised were only R1 150 000, ~3.5% of the R33million capital costs. Suggestions were made for the beneficiaries to provide some financial contribution, but this was also not realised. Our study incorporated a questionnaire survey 10 out of 15 renewable energy experts. This study explores financial mechanisms other than the CDM that could be used to recover some portion of the capital costs. We critically analyse these strategies and suggest methods to achieve greater financial sustainability for similar projects within low-income communities.