Open Africa Power 2019
Name: Marilyn Bongmo Jaff
Bio/Personal Statement: I am 29 years old, a Rural Engineer by profession working for the Ministry of Water resources and Energy, Cameroon. My strong educational background which is a purely scientific and theoretical background and the practicality of engineering sciences (with particular study of Renewable Energy) are my driving force towards contributing to the attainment of SDG7 by 2030. I was privileged to be selected as one of the 60 participants of Open Africa Power 2019 by ENEL Foundation. My motto in life is “Do everything as if it was your last, for a better world”.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrification and solar mapping of the NDOP rice basin: a new phase for the NDOP rice milling sector and the locales at large for an emerging Cameroon
Abstract: Electric power is a key driver of economic growth and prosperity, but this is still very low in SSA especially in the rural areas. Amongst the under-served localities in electricity in Cameroon are the villages of Bafanji, Balikumbat and Bangola (in the North West region), and Bangourain (in the West Region) which are high rice production hubs for both local consumption and export. Strengthening rural infrastructure such as electricity for rice milling and rice processing facilities could render Cameroon a rice granary for Central Africa.
With the already unbundled electricity generation sector in Cameroon, and with several private investors already implementing power generation projects in several parts of the country, implementing an off-grid model to serve the local population of the Ndop Rice Basin especially for the operation of their rice mills will be an uncomplicated task as the regulations governing this sector had been reformed (in 2011) to favor private investment in electricity generation and distribution. Solar irradiation in Cameroon is estimated at an annual average of 4.9 KWh/m2/day, thus solar energy can be exploited as the reliable and affordable energy source to power the rice mills and serve other household and productive uses of the locales in the Ndop Rice Basin. Most of the milling machines used by rice millers have low power ratings mostly horse power (HP) from 20HP to 30HP, yet fully utilizing them is not possible due to power outages and high cost of electricity.
The research seeks to propose an alternative power supply to the local communities involved with rice production and processing, so as to render this productive-use activity more profitable for the people, and as well improve on their household and community power uses. It also proposes a means towards solar data collection to aid in the future development of a decision, working and sustainability tool (through the development of the Ndop Rice Basin Energy ATLAS) for all stakeholders of the energy sector in the project area and the country at large.
The methodology to be used will involve; desktop review and assessment of the solar radiation data available for the Ndop rice Basin, community sensitization and engagement, identification and assessment of the size of the fields to be used, selection of solar PV system component, designing the layout of two Solar PV mini-grid connected systems, implementation of the solar PV systems and a solar meteorological station for data collection for future development of the Ndop Rice Basin Energy ATLAS. To carry out the simulations, HOMER Pro has been proposed as the preferred modeling tool due to its comprehensive, flexible and robust nature of use.
Name: Maame Tabuah Ankoh
Bio/Personal Statement: Maame Tabuah Ankoh is an energy and infrastructure professional with over thirteen years of experience in the development and implementation of diverse infrastructure projects such as large hydropower and solar projects. She also has experience in the development of energy policies stemming from power market analysis, resource planning which involves several resources including energy efficiency, renewables energy, coal and natural gas markets.
She is presently the Renewable Energy Specialist on the USAID Integrated Resource and Resilience Planning Project in Ghana which provides technical assistance and capacity training for Ghana Sector agencies in long term power resource planning. She is directly involved in power system planning and modelling which looks at the least cost generation and transmission options for the country.
Title of Capstone Project: Ghana: Challenge with Renewable Energy Implementation
Abstract: Ghana is considered to be one of countries in the Sub-Saharan Region with a relatively stable political and economic environment and with the country looking to industrialize, enormous growth in the electricity sector is anticipated. In 2018, Ghana’s total on-grid electricity consumption was about 16TWh and is projected to double to about 31TWh by end of 2030. With an installed capacity of about 4313MW (3868MW of dependable capacity), the energy mix in the country is primarily dominated by thermal generation at about 61%, followed by large hydropower at about 39% with renewables being just 0.1%.
The country in a strive to ensure that the development of economy is supported by more sustainable sources of energy, the country put in place numerous policies, strategies and regulations which was to guide the sector in scaling the uptake of renewable energy technologies. Some of these included the enactment of an RE Act (Act 838) which obligated electricity distribution companies and bulk customers to procure some specified percentage of its total electricity purchase from renewable energy sources. It also called for the establishment of a feed-in-tariff scheme which was to ensure the sale of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. The SREP-Ghana IP amongst several other programs were also developed and was aimed at unlocking financing opportunities in accelerating the development of a sustainable renewable energy sector. The more recent Integrated Power Sector Master Plan and the Renewable Energy Master Plan developed for the sector all called for the significant scaling up of renewables in the energy mix of the country.
The enormous effort put into the creation of the strategies and policies to create an enabling environment to mobilize investment in the renewable energy space is reflected in the RISE (Regulatory Indicator for Sustainable Energy) score of 63.69 the country earned, placing it second after South Africa for the Sub Saharan Region. The RISE which is a set of indicators which aids in the comparison of national policy and regulatory frameworks for sustainable energy (World Bank Group 2017).
Although all indications point to the fact that the stage is set for renewables to take off from the ground, the scaling up of renewable projects have been a very slow one. By the end of 2017, the proportion of renewable energy capacity installed as a percentage of total capacity was about 0.6%. Of this percentage only about 38MW represented grid connected renewable generation capacity with the rest 16MW being off-grid and distributed solar PV and mini-grid systems. Although an additional 20MW was added 2018 it still did not significantly shore up renewable in the generation mix and remained less than 1%. In contrast over, 880MW of thermal power plants were added to the power system from 2015 to 2018 (representing over 20% of installed capacity).
There have been several speculative reasons given to the slow deployment of renewable technologies in the country and this study has the primary objective of assessing the major inhibitory factors to the scaling up of REs specific to the Ghana context and identification of gaps in existing RE policies and actual implementation processes which might have contributed to this. It will seek to make recommendations for the improvement in the implementation processes with the ultimate aim of significantly increasing renewables in the country’s energy mix.
Name: Kwadwo Brentuo Owusu
Bio/Personal Statement: Kwadwo Brentuo holds a Masters Degree in Public Administration and also Bachelor’s degrees in Civil Engineering (from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Ghana) and law (LLB). He started his career in Engineering at the Bui Power Authority (State-owned power utility) in 2008 as a Supervising Civil Engineer, and worked hard to supervise successfully the construction of the 400MW Bui Hydroelectric Plant.
In July 2017, he joined the Renewable Energy directorate of the Ministry of Energy Ghana to work on Energy Policy and regulation. He is currently the Manager in charge of Renewable Electricity and itsinvolved in the coordination of renewable energy investments in Ghana as well Energy Policy Planning & Project Management. He has special interest in the areas of environmental protection and Climate Change.
Kwadwo is an avid lover of sports and loves to run marathons and half marathons.
Title of Capstone Project: Provision of Investment-based Information-A Positive Step in Attracting and Coordinating Investment in Biomass Power Generation in Ghana.
Abstract: The utilization of biomass as a source or energy has become very critical for Ghana in meeting its energy goals as well as realizing its commitment to international treaties such as the Paris Agreement. The Challenge has been the absence of information; technical and financial for potential investors to make informed and concrete decisions to invest. The research proposal suggests the Ministry of Energy to facilitate an independent research into the viability of the development of Biomass for Energy production in Ghana. Ultimately, the research findings will be used as a basis for organizing an investment forum to attract potential investement in Biomass for power generation.
Name: Mercy Ndinda Kiio
Bio/Personal Statement: Mercy Kiio received BSc in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and MSc in Electrical Engineering from Jomo Kenyatta university of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT-KENYA) in 2010 and 2017 respectively. She is currently pursuing her PhD Degree in Electrical Engineering (Power Systems Option) with Pan African University Institute for basic sciences, Technology and Innovation (PAUSTI-Kenya). She is currently serving as a lecturer in JKUAT and a member of Electrical Installations and Distributions Technical Committee in Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). Her research interests include, Renewable Energy, power systems and control Engineering. She is in good standing with Engineers Board of Kenya.
Title of Capstone Project: Electricity from consumers: productive use of energy in kenyan rural areas based on swarm electrification concept.
Abstract: Sustainable energy access will play a critical role towards attaining Kenya’s vision 2030 and successful implementation of the government’s ‘Big Four’ agenda. This proposed project seeks to utilize the rapid growth of rooftop solar home systems within the country to build a micro grid, through linking several households in a village or community, hence scaling up production for productive use such as irrigation. The scaling up concept is a bottom-up approach popularly known as ‘Swarm Electrification’. Without innovative energy access solutions, Kenya’s vison 2030 will forever remain to be nothing but just a vision in rural areas.
Name: David Kiplagat Kirop
Bio/Personal Statement: Proactive and diligent servant leader. The OAP 2019 has pursued Master of Science in Computer Systems, Bachelor of Technology (BTech) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Telecommunication Engineering) as well as Programmable Logic Control (PLC). He has also pursued courses in information technology as well as certifications in Security, Cloud and Databases. He has a wealth of experience in the field of Electrical, Information Technology, Telecommunications and Instrumentation, acquired from a number of Telecommunication and IT firms. He is passionate about innovations, technical explorations, education and leadership and has been involved in various Automation and Robotic projects that involve all the processes of project development cycle.
Title of Capstone Project: Solar powered electric fence in Cherangani Hills Forests
Abstract: Kenya has made tremendous progress towards achieving universal energy access. However, due to the growing population, climatic conditions and other socio-economic factors, major challenges in accessing energy are still being experienced both in rural and urban areas. This commitment can be seen through the numerous clean energy projects that have been completed throughout the country such as wind, hydro, geothermal and solar power projects.
Energy regulation also plays a major role. Government organs such as the parliament and senate as well as entities such as Energy Regulatory Commission of Kenya (ERC) and Kenya’s Ministry of Energy have continuously looked into matters of design, installation and maintenance of clean energy solutions. They have tackled issues to do with Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) among different players in the energy sector and other sectors.
Because of huge interest in these areas, regulation may involve limiting the players and adopting worldwide standard procedures. Therefore, having strategic partnerships are important when considering common interests, experience, reputation and capacity.
Natural resources in any country are important in preserving heritage and livelihoods. Preserving them and proper use is the commitment that every citizen or leader should agree to for sustainability and viability. Furthermore, these resources may not only have positive or negative effects for the country, but also the neighbors, region and the world. Forests, rocks, minerals, lakes and mountains that preserve the wildlife as well as being water towers and sources of many rivers are examples of natural features that give great source of posterity and hope.
However, there are many challenges affecting the natural resources. These challenges are mainly man made. Over exploitation and misuse of the natural resources have led to dire climatic and health conditions. Droughts, drying rivers, extinction of species and myriad of emerging diseases have been common.
Electric fence has been used in many places including homesteads, premises and farms. They have proved to be useful in enhancing security. Solar powered electric fence in Cherangani Hills Forests will be an innovative solution to many challenges faced by communities living around these forests as well as ensuring that they are not overexploited and misused. It will give immense benefits as solar is a clean, reliable and affordable energy source. In addition to limiting access to the forests and providing easier management, the communities can benefit immensely from such investments through community initiatives and agreements.
Name: Betty Muthoka
Bio/Personal Statement: Betty Muthoka is an Electrical Energy engineer and a project manager with a particular interest in energy access and renewable energy. She works closely with both public and private sector stakeholders in the energy sector for consistency of approach in the development/management of assignments geared towards deployment/uptake of modern energy solutions. Currently, she is an Energy Expert with the World Energy Council, the largest global network of energy leaders and practitioners dedicated to delivering a sustainable energy system for the greatest benefit of all.
Betty holds a B.Eng. in Electrical & Electronic Engineering from The Technical university of Kenya and an MSc. In Energy Technology from JKUAT.
Title of Capstone Project: Biogas to Bio-methane – Purification of Biogas for Clean Cooking and Electricity Generation.)
Abstract: For households without access to grid-based electricity or gas for cooking, traditional cook stoves are typically fueled by wood or charcoal, generating considerable indoor air pollution. Cook stoves fueled with biomass provide complete combustion, significantly alleviating health and environmental problems. In many developing countries, biogas cooking can also improve the livelihoods of rural households, as by-products of biogas production such as slurry and fertilizer boost agricultural productivity. Modern biogas use, meanwhile, reduces the amount of time spent by women and children collecting wood.
Despite these clear advantages, the potential of domestic biogas has not been fully exploited. Constraints include: limited awareness about biogas applications; the initial cost of installation; lack of skilled labor for installation and operation; inadequate and intermittent government support; biogas contaminants and competition from fossil-based alternatives. However, pre-fabricated biogas units constructed of fiber, plastic or lightweight bags can be cheaper to install, while investments in the biogas value chain, from installation to maintenance, can reduce costs further.
Biogas is a developing alternative energy source produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic matter by bacteria. While several factors affect biogas production, optimal conditions for its yield need to be attained and maintained to ensure effectiveness. Biogas is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) with trace amounts of other toxic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The proposal also aims at Purification of Biogas to Bio-methane. In this case the purified methane will be used for clean cooking and to produce electricity by using it as a fuel to run a biogas generator for domestic energy uses.
Name: Julius Gathua Ndirangu
Bio/Personal Statement: Eng. Julius Ndirangu is a young Kenyan electrical engineer who believes Africa has immense resources that can effectively be harnessed to enable universal access to electricity in the near future. He was selected to participate in the Open Africa Power 2019 program. He received his BSc. and MSc. Degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT), Kenya in 2009 and 2018 respectively. He is currently pursuing PhD in Electrical Engineering from the same university. He is a registered professional engineer in Kenya with wide experience in Electrical Building Services Engineering and Electrical Power System Design. He currently works as a Standards Compliance Engineer in KPLC, the utility company, and is a member of Solar Market Committee of the company. He has published several research papers with IEEE. His current research interests include renewable energy integration and measures to improve performance and reliability of power system distribution networks.
Title of Capstone Project: Smart Solar Powered Milk Cooling Plant for Increased Returns for Farmers in Mahianyu Village in Laikipia County - Kenya
Abstract: This project proposes a smart solar powered milk cooling plant to increase returns from milk production to the farmers in Mahianyu village in Laikipia county - Kenya. The village is underdeveloped in terms of road network and electricity grid connection. The proposed plant will be used to store the evening milk from the farmers, thus enabling them to sell it the following morning at market price. Additionally, the proposed cooling plant will have USB plug ports for charging mobile phones, radios and solar lanterns for the villagers at a small fee.
Name: Carol Awuor Ofafa
Bio/Personal Statement: Carol Awuor Ofafa is an Electrical and Electronic Engineer at the Kenya Electricity Transmission Company (KETRACO). She serves in the Power Systems Planning and Design department as a protection engineer. She recently completed her M.Sc. Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Management at the University of Glasgow where she was exemplary and received the graduate award for leadership. At KETRACO she is responsible for design of high voltage transmission infrastructure as well as on-site supervision of construction, commissioning works and testing. Carol graduated from the University of Nairobi in 2013 with a 1st class honours in Bachelor of Science Electrical and Electronic Engineering. She was the winner of the 2008 United World College, Lester B. Pearson Scholarship award and the 2017 Commonwealth Scholarship Award to attend University of Glasgow. Amongst other achievements, Carol was part of the team that won the 2017-2018 Collaborative innovation (Co-Lab) challenge at the University of Glasgow. She is passionate about mentorship of women in energy and community development through the involvement of women in development of reliable and efficient energy infrastructure. She is a mentor at Akili Dada (Kenya) and FemEng (University of Glasgow) where she uses her skills and abilities to influence the lives of young girls interested in STEM related courses. This passion for mentorship also led to various other opportunities such as invitation to speak at the Africa Power roundtable conference in Sandton, Johannesburg 2017, a panelist at the Women in extractives conference in Kenya,2017 and one of the invited speakers at the Kenya mining forum 2017.
Title of Capstone Project: A Ride in the Sun:Innovative off grid solar powered charging station for electric bodaboda’ s (e-boda), lamps and mobile phones for Malindi, Kenya.
Abstract: Kenya has the highest rate of connectivity in the region. Owing to electrification projects such as last mile by Kenya Power, Vision 2030 electrification projects by the Kenya Electricity Transmission Company and an increase in stand-alone off grid renewable generation, the national access rate has grown steadily in the last five years from a low of 32 percent in 2013 to as high as 75 percent by the end of April 2018 both for grid and off grid solutions. This indicates that Kenya is well on its way to achieving universal access, due to accelerated investment in the distribution network and increased investment in renewable energy generation. Similarly, the World Bank’s Global Partnership Output-Based Aid program that targets informal settlements in urban areas and low-income households in the rural areas has gone a long way in increasing access in these areas. However, in Coastal Kenya and especially rural Malindi, electrification rates remain low at 5% for rural households and 22% for rural businesses.
Malindi, a coastal town located 120km northeast of Mombasa town, has a population of over 207,253 and is the largest urban center in Kilifi County. Tourism is the major Industry in Malindi. The thriving tourism industry in Malindi, is linked directly to the economic development of the region. However, unreliable electricity in the region is estimated to be as low as 43% and this has affected household income directly and indirectly. Similarly, due to the nature of the small roads in Malindi Old town, where several tourism sites are located, the locals and tourists alike are not allowed by the council to use motor vehicles within the city. Therefore, the demand for motorcycle (bodabodas) and tuktuk transportation is high. The locals and tourist’s dependence on motorcycles and tuktuks for local transportation has created employment opportunities for the youth. The management of the transport industry is done majorly by SACCO’s who procure and maintain these bodabodas. The bodabodas mostly run on diesel and petrol. However, in recent years there has been fluctuation in fuel prices causing the petrol/diesel bodabodas to be unpopular and therefore causing an influx on electric bodabodas imported into the country due to the lower cost in maintenance and lack of fuel needs.
This recent introduction of electric motorcycles, though few, has the potential to cause an increase in energy demands by the communities in the region. This is due to the charging needs for batteries used in the electric motorcycles. Similarly, households heavily rely on kerosene for lighting and diesel generators for commercial enterprises. Without reliable electricity, the new-found popularity of electric motorcycles could decline therefore, causing an increase in contribution of local air pollution and no viable solution for the immediate access to reliable electricity for the rural and urban households.
Significant off grid solar PV projects have been explored by independent organizations through signed PPA’s with KPLC. However, these do not support much productive-use applications and especially transportation. The existing off grid projects have expected high costs per unit kWh than regulator approves prices for grid licenses.
This proposal seeks to introduce a research design for a solar powered charging station that will provide optimal reliable charging option for e-bodas through a swapo and go initiative for fast and reliable operation, charging option for lamps and mobile phones for both rural and urban Malindi. Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. The charging stations which will be strategically located to increase access to the most remote areas in Malindi as well as the urban areas, are designed to provide street lighting where they stand which further increases security and accords longer business days for the local businesses.
The proposal explores a business model that has swappable battery charging option to accord the commercial users a fast and flawless operation. The proposal seeks to further incentivize Cooperative societies (SACCO’s) to increase procurement of e-bodas from local manufacturers who have recently launched design and manufacture electric motorcycles and thus further incentivize the use of the charging stations. The charging stations, in the future, are expected to provide services to the grid, such as frequency response or peak shaving (if the C-rate of the motorcycles’ batteries allows). These services, which are used for flattening the load profile, may have huge benefits, such as increasing asset utilization of the national grid, and allowing a higher integration of renewable energy onto the grid. However, these services will require the necessary policy to be set up, and thus are not expected to be bankable in the short term. In that light, the charging stations will be used for deferring grid investment and allowing a faster uptake of the new technology which will bring about huge environmental benefits, and boost to the local economy.
The successful implementation of this project, though not the first of its kind in Africa, would be the first in Kenya and would set precedence for the application in areas with similar context in Kenya. It will demonstrate the productive use of renewable energy and provision of electricity at subsidized cost in low and middle income areas while further creating job opportunities while maintaining financial viability.
Name: Joel Rutto Sutter
Bio/Personal Statement: Eng. Joel Rutto Sutter is an accomplished Electrical, Electro-Mechanical and Energy expert. He is a Drilling Engineer at Geothermal Development Company (GDC), with 9 years’ experience in Engineering practice; Rig Drive systems, Electrical Plant, geothermal drilling engineering, power system design, control, analysis, training and research. He is curriculum reviewer/developer in the department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (JKUAT). Sutter is a registered Engineer with Engineers Board of Kenya (EBK) and Professional Technology Engineer (KETRB). He has published widely peer reviewed engineering journal papers. Joel is PhD candidate (Electrical Engineering), JKUAT He holds a MSc. in Electrical Engineering from the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical and Communications Engineering from Moi and Masinde Muliro University’s and member of both the Institution of Engineering Technology of Kenya (IET) and Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK).
Title of Capstone Project: Hybrid renewable energy system for application in livestock industries in rural Kenya value addition via milk and meat processing
Abstract: Inadequate access to reliable and affordable electricity services in rural areas significantly diminishes the opportunities for the value addition and development of many economically productive activities, including agro-enterprises like milk/meat processing and packaging. Reliable and affordable energy is a vital input to many agricultural and post-harvest processes. Adding energy to agricultural production and processing, often the largest employer in rural areas, is an important way to grow beyond subsistence farming and the supply of raw materials toward the potential of added value. Fortunately, there are decentralized and commercially proven energy alternatives including those that harness renewable energy. Many of these are now technically and financially viable, even in remote rural areas. This project proposal outlines hybrid these technologies and their appropriate applications in the field and includes best practice examples used on a significant scale in processing of livestock products in remote Kenya. It explores the possibilities of establishment of off grid hybrid systems mainly comprising wind, solar and biomass that will create a value addition regime for milk and meat.
Name: Evan Wanjiru
Bio/Personal Statement: Dr. Evan Wanjiru is a Future Energy Leader, Lecturer and an Energy Consultant with many years’ experience in the academia and industry in Africa. He has been leading various energy efficiency activities including renewable energy projects and developing energy management training curriculum in various sectors in Kenya. Other activities include energy training various industry practitioners, carrying out energy audits as well as measurements and verification. Dr. Wanjiru is also a researcher and a lecturer where he is supervising a number of undergraduate and postgraduate students. His current research projects include renewable energy storage optimization, grid-tied and off-grid energy management systems, renewable energy for industrial thermal energy supply and waste heat recovery. Other research interests include e-transport, demand response, energy modelling and data analytics.
Title of Capstone Project: Clean electricity for remote tourist lodges: off-grid electrification with e-transportation and demand response concept for kenyan remote tourist lodges
Abstract: Safari lodges are different from many types of accommodation in that they are mostly in remote locations that are sensitive to human impact and have no grid connection. To minimize environmental footprint, electricity provision in such lodges is one area that needs to be given more attention. Currently, such lodges in Kenya and many Sub-Saharan countries rely on on-site diesel generators to provide their electricity needs. This leads to high carbon footprint, while the lodges are subject to volatility in the fossil fuel market which ends up marginally increasing their operating cost. Worse still, transportation of diesel to the lodges’ sites runs at a risk of spilling and greatly affecting the ecosystem while diesel generators themselves lead to noise pollution during operation. Maturity of renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind and biomass can greatly minimize the negative effects. In fact, more and more safari lodges have started adopting renewable energy systems across Sub-Saharan Africa. Reduction in the cost of renewable energy components such as solar panels and storage systems will economically profit the lodges by reducing their electricity generation cost. Importantly, studies have shown that the core business of hotels is positively affected by green initiatives such as adoption of green energy.
With rising competition in the tourism industry, there is need to offer innovative products besides lowering operating cost. Such innovation could be in having complementary efforts such as electric game viewers or electric boats. There are actually reports of several pilots of such complementary efforts, which can only make sense if electricity generation is from renewable sources and not from diesel generators.
This research seeks therefore to introduce an innovative approach to providing electricity to remote lodges while considering environmental and social factors of the surrounding community. Lack of grid power connection to the lodges and the surrounding community and existence of huge demand for electricity both for household and productive uses provides adequate justification for exploring this research. The remote lodges are to act as anchor loads for the mini-grid system which would be powered from existing renewable energy systems. The hybrid mini-grid will be designed to have energy storage system in the form of the complementary electric vehicles that could be used in a particular lodge to further enhance income generation. Such vehicles could include go-karting, game viewing or quad bikes. Their operation will however need to be optimized in order to ensure sufficient power is being stored for periods with no renewable energy present. The surrounding community, if any, will also be powered using the mini-grid and a possible business case will be explored. Training of technicians from the surrounding community on retrofitting of fossil powered vehicles to be electric, where possible, will have positive impact in terms of job creation. Furthermore, successful implementation of the research project will be the first of its kind and will set good pre-eminence to similar projects in other parts of the world. In addition, it will be possible to demonstrate that innovation in adoption of renewable energy can further lower the cost of the project while providing reliable electricity to lodges and surrounding community, which would also lead to a better business case to an investor.
Name: Felix Khembo
Bio/Personal Statement: I am a programme management professional with an Mphil in Programme Evaluation from the University of Cape Town, a Bachelors degree in Social Science (majoring Economics) from University of Malawi and a Diploma in Accounting from the Malawi College of Accountancy. I am currently pursuing a PhD in Programme Evaluation at University of Cape Town. I have over 8 years of experience in project appraisals, risk assessments, programme management, research, development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks, monitoring programme performance and evaluating programmes. More than three-quarters of my work experience has been obtained in the energy sector in Africa, Malawi after serving for Electricity Supply Corporation of Malawi and later, Electricity Generation Company (Malawi) Limited as a Senior Economist.
Title of Capstone Project: A Techno-Economic Feasibility Study for Integrating Existing 49.3MWof Thermal Diesel Power Plants in Malawi with Solar Photovoltaic and/or Wind Power
Abstract: The research project entails investigating the feasibility of integrating existing utility-scale 49.3MW of thermal diesel power plants in Malawi with solar photovoltaic and/or wind power. The primary objective of the project is to enhance universal access to electricity in Malawi by sustainably delivering affordable power through reductions in operating costs (fuel) of diesel power plants and minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The feasibility study will use load profiles, solar irradiance and wind speed data, economic and various technical data to simulate and model an integrated system of solar PV and/or wind power with the diesel power plants of a national-wide utility called Electricity Generation Company (Malawi) Limited (EGENCO). The system modelling and optimization process will be carried out using HOMER and WAsP hybrid decision support tools. The study project, which will be implemented by EGENCO planning officers, is expected to take a period of about 6 months.
Name: Chimango Maleta
Bio/Personal Statement: Chimango is a qualified Energy Economist. He has a Bachelor’s Degree in Economics obtained from the University of Monash in South Africa, an Honours Degree in Development Theory and Policy and a Master’s Degree in Development Theory and Policy. His BCom Honours research focus was in identifying, analysing and evaluating the key issues and debates around biofuel production and identifying socio-economic opportunities for community participation in Malawi. His Master’s degree research focus was on the Case for Alternative Sources of Liquid Fuels & Petro-chemicals and the Development of Regional Hydrocarbons Infrastructure in the SADC, with a Focus on Malawi. His current role at CIRD is Project Manager for Energy. He has been responsible for leading several consultancies undertaken by the firm such as Malawi country assessments, off-grid demand studies for small-hydro, solar, and centralized and decentralized Biofuel plants. He is also the lead developer in a Biogas project for electricity generation and fertilizer production in Malawi.
Title of Capstone Project: Biogas to Power Project: A case for a Mini Grid in Chikwawa
Abstract: Biogas can be used in a combined heat and power process to generate electricity.This is a mature technology that has been implemented in several regions across the world. The utilization of this technology poses a good opportunity for development and growth of biogas plants in Malawi. The technology remains underutilized in Malawi despite significant potential. Malawi’s livestock population and agricultural activity mean the country has an inexhaustible source of biological waste that can be used as feedstock to produce bio-gas that can be used as a fuel in a combined heat and power process. The production of biogas can justify the development of a mini-grid and a case for cogeneration Illovo, a sugar company in the southern Malawi. The lower Shire in southern Malawi is home to 70% of Malawi’s cattle population, 980 000. The population of cattle is distributed across small holder and large scale farms of 2-20 000 cattle in size. The required feedstock is therefore available in centralized and decentralized pockets; and if waste collection models are applied correctly and feedstock can be guaranteed then this project could provide the community with an alternative power source. The excess gas produced can be compressed into composite cylinders that the community can utilize for clean cooking, powering domestic generators and can in future be utilized as a vehicle fuel.
Name: Meriam Hamdi
Bio/Personal Statement: Meriam is a sustainable energy engineer from Morocco with a two-year experience in the technical, managerial, and economic aspects of renewable energies and energy efficiency. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Engineering and Management Science, and a Master of Science in Sustainable Energy Management from Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco. She worked as a Project Assistant at the Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE) in Cairo, Egypt. Before that, she was a research and business development intern at RCREEE. In parallel to her graduate studies, Meriam acted as a part-time energy engineer in two UNDP- and government-funded projects in the south of Morocco. Through her work, Meriam is interested in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa and the Middle East, namely affordable and clean energy (SDG 7), sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and climate resilience (SDG 13).
Title of Capstone Project: Parabolic-Dish Concentrated Photovoltaic System for Industrial Applications in Morocco – Recycling Satellite Dishes
Abstract: In Morocco, a fifth of the total energy was consumed by the industrial sector in 2017. Since most industries rely on both heat and electrical power from the grid for their processes, a hybrid solar energy system is suggested. The proposed solution is a parabolic-dish concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) system. Using second-hand satellite dishes covered with adhesive mirror films, a CPVT prototype can be assembled in the country using national skills and local components and can be tested in an industrial setting.
Name: Paul Adedeji
Bio/Personal Statement: Paul Adedeji is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. He received his Masters Degree in Industrial and Production Engineering in 2016 and his first degree in Mechanical Engineering, 2011. He is research interest is in machine learning in hybrid renewable energy systems optimization, artificial intelligence, energy-based facility location, systems optimization, and process engineering. He has published journals and conference papers in some of these fields. Paul is a registered engineer under the Council for Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) and a member of Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). He is currently working on spatial-based renewable energy system optimization. He is a talented saxophonist who plays both the Classical and Jazz music.
Title of Capstone Project: Intelligent energy consumption management system: a case study of Nigeria and South Africa
Abstract: The energy system is a dynamic system, of which inefficiency in one of its components causes a ripple effect on the other components. Effective power generation, transmission, and distribution without effective and efficient use of energy from the end-user makes the system non-sustainable. This project proposes an intelligent demand response model for prepaid smart meter users, which is user-inclusive and user schedule specific but dynamic in operation. The model inclusively prioritizes energy consumption from different electrical appliances via different buses in the house and integrates it with the pattern of use and user’s schedules. It maximizes the use of available appliances in the home within the space of the family budget for the month. It is expected that the project when hardwired and implemented will improve energy efficiency with less of human inputs and maximum cost savings in Nigeria and the global community at large.
Name: Abel Airoboman
Bio/Personal Statement: I have a Master Degree in Power and Machines and presently a PhD candidate with my research interest on reliability of electric power systemsnetwork. My focus will continue to be channelled towards carving a nichethat will guarantee reliable power supply and sustainability in the energyindustry especially in my home country and in the world at large. At this point, I pledge to be among the energy experts that will make this come toreality in the nearest future.
Title of Capstone Project: Modeling an off-grid solar system for energy poverty reduction in Ovbiogie Community, Nigeria.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to carry out assessment, auditing, clustering and design of solar PV module suitable for Ovbiogie community, a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. The community is said to be partially electrified and depends mostly on the use of solid biomass fuel and kerosene lamps as their source of energy. In order to achieve the aim of the study, experimental analysis was carried out to determine the tilt angle of the proposed PV panel consequently, the data obtained from the experiment was transported to the Matlab 2015 environment from which the consumption rate at various energy clusters were determined. Results from the paper revealed that an energy demand of 50.4kWh/day, 247.1kWh/day and 559.0893kWh/day for clusters A, B and C Respectively. Further results showed that maximum efficiency of Solar PV panel will be achieved when the Solar PV is placed at a tilt angle of 21.50. A peak period of energy consumption in the community between 11:00am and 3pm was also established. This paper can therefore serve as useful guide for energy planning, for investors as well as for the purpose of expansion.
Name: Alexandre Olatunde Akolo
Bio/Personal Statement: Alexander is an experienced professional with demonstrated history of working in the Nigerian Power Industry. He is a team player skilled in negotiation, power contract administration and settlements, electricity economics and research. Currently, he is the Technical Assistant to the Bureau of Trade and Investments, Embassy of Brazil in Nigeria. His role entails providing strategic support on potential trade opportunities between Nigeria and Brazil across diverse sectors include rural electricity sub-subsector. Prior to this, he worked as a Contracts Management Analyst at the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading (NBET) Plc. where he administered electricity trades to the tune of N54Billion to Distribution Companies and International Customers.
Alexander possesses a B.Sc. Economics and M.Sc. Energy Studies degrees from the University of Jos and University of Ibadan. He is currently a Doctorate Candidate in Energy Studies at the University of Ibadan where he specializes in Electricity Economics. His ongoing research covers the economic viability, risk assessments and socio-economic impacts of Isolated Mini-Grid projects in Nigeria.He is a member of the Nigerian Association of Energy Economics, Global Association of Risk Professionals and the Energy Institute. Alexander’s other research interests include but are not limited to Climate Change, Alternative Vehicular Fuelsand International Trade.
Bio/Personal Statement: Samson is a young professional with keen interest in the management of process, energy and commercial activities toward delivering of energy projects as well as ensuring their effective operation and maintenance. He has a strong knowledge in the conversion of organic waste to biogas, solar PV, solar thermal and wind energy. Also, from previous projects with data analytics and economic modelling, he has gained knowledge in valuing equity and debt, to determining the levelised cost across portfolios and optimal decision criteria with appropriate econometrics. He has insight into risk analysis and management. He is conversant with the energy sector in South Africa and Nigeria. He aims to become an energy expert in sub-Sahara Africa, delivering various types of energy projects. He is registered with the Engineering Council of South Africa.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrifying Education in Nigeria: Transferring Knowledge and Electricity to Communities
Abstract: The paralysis of the electric grid in Nigeria has limited access to electricity across sectors. This hindered access has affected the acquisition of skills and appropriate knowledge dissemination to Nigerian students across all institutions of learning. With only 25% of the 1.9 million students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria housed within the university residences, the remaining students reside in private accommodations around the University precinct. Due to the location of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which are often sited at the outskirt of the city, access to electricity by students in private accommodation has been seriously hindered because these university precincts are new developing areas. Even on-campus accommodations are not spared of the lack of electricity supply, hence, student resolves to the use of cell phone flash light, portable power bank (<0.04 kWh capacity), and small mobile rechargeable lamps to study at night. Several hours are spent to get these devices charged at any location where a petrol/diesel generator is being used. In the process, useful academic time and mental energy is lost. This lost time and energy impact negatively on the student capacity to accumulate knowledge. This problem is what this Open Africa Power capstone project set out to solve.
To proffer a solution and meet the basic electricity need of Nigerian students, a hybrid microgrid (Solar PV and Diesel power generator) is proposed. This proposal established that on average a student requires between 0.0917 – 0.2601 kWh/day to meet their basic electricity needs. Based on this established average, between 123-348 MWh/day is required by students in tertiary institutions to meet their basic electricity need. The proposed microgrid will be sized to meet the need of 100 students of the Federal University of Technology Akure in a pilot project. The student will charge a portable battery at the micro grid facility twice in a week. The portable battery will be of a light weight and have an interface that provides power to the student phone, reading lamp, an extra bulb for illumination, a tablet and/or a laptop. Two sizes of the portable battery were proposed (60 Ah/12 V and 100 Ah/12 V) and the microgrid will be adequately sized to produce 37.61 kWh/day with 2 days autonomy. The detailed study will involve collection of relevant data, optimized system design, business model development and project implementation schedule. This proposal further highlights the extended benefit of electrifying education in Nigeria. That is, not only will the student spend more time acquiring appropriate knowledge, the stress to source for electricity along with the psychological impact will be reduced. Also, the acquittance with the microgrid plant will provide the needed hands-on knowledge to replicate such systems in their local communities according to the business model that suit such areas and provide skilled manpower to the Nigerian workforce.
Name: Ojemeni Ujunwa
Bio/Personal Statement: Ujunwa Ojemeni is an impact investing, energy and development expert with experience in the areas of opportunity maturation, financing, and policy. At the Office of to the Honourable Commissioner for Energy & Mineral Resources Lagos State, she drives policies, investments opportunities and implementation strategies to deliver reliable energy to the citizens of the State. She is also an Advisor with the Private Finance Advisory Network (PFAN) - the multilateral, public-private partnership hosted by United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) focused on bridging the investment gap between investors and entrepreneurs and project developers by facilitating investment into promising clean energy and climate change projects.
She was previously the Senior Investment Associate at All On, responsible for driving clean energy investments opportunities from origination to closing as well as providing strategic, governance and operational support to All On’s investees. Before then, she was involved in energy infrastructure Project Development and Project Financing at Axxela Limited, and Management Consulting at KPMG. To promote the participation of women in the energy sector, she founded the African Women in Energy Development Initiative (AWEDI Network) focused on promoting the growth of women in the sector through mentorship programs, career sponsorship (acceleration), networking opportunities, professional development and leadership training for women at all stages of their energy careers and for female students at the secondary and tertiary levels.
Title of Capstone Project: Last Mile Energy (LME) Solution– An Innovative Distribution Energy Access Model anchored on Agro-processing via Agricultural Aggregators in Nigeria.
Abstract: The LME model proposes a solution whereby energy enterprises become sub-franchisees of the incumbent Electricity Distribution Utilities providing reliable energy using the most appropriate energy supply option at suitable locations in Nigeria. To ensure viability, the model is premised on productive use of energy; LME enterprises support the financing of agricultural equipment and appliances for smallholder farmers working with existing well-established agricultural franchise companies, leveraging their franchise structures to ensure payment for the energy supplied.
Name: Gemma Ituze
Bio/Personal Statement: Ms Gemma Ituze got her bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering with a first-class honour from former Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) in2013, Kigali, Rwanda. She received a Master Degree in Electronics Science and Technology from Beijing Institute of Technology in 2015, Beijing, China, and completed her second Master Degree in Energy Engineering from the Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (PAUWES), Tlemcen, Algeria.
Gemma carried internships, at Rwanda Broadcasting Agency in2012, and at Rwanda Energy Group in 2017. She also worked as a volunteer intern at Centre de development des energies Renouvelables in Algeria during her Master program.
Gemma is currently involved in teaching and research in daily activities at the University of Technology and Arts of Byumba. Her interests include renewable energy resources and hybrid systems.
Title of Capstone Project: A Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic-Bioenergy System for Powering Kabasega village
Abstract: The use of energy has always been important to improve the living standard of human beings. Relying on energy generated from fossil fuels has resulted in the reduction of fossil fuel reserves, the change of climate due to the pollution of the environment and to financial instability due to its cost fluctuation. From the presented challenges related to the use of fossil fuels, renewable energy resources have been thought as solutions. On the other side, because of the renewable source intermittent character, it is difficult and rare for one single renewable energy source to supply clean, reliable and cost-effective power. Thus, a combination of multiple power resources can be a good way to provide a solution.
The electricity access in Rwanda is still low; only 23% of the population has access to electricity. In remotes area, the situation is even worst; access to modern energy services is practically inexistent. The rate of electrification is extremely low. Renewable energy, by its availability and its adaptability to the remote areas, is the best way to get these regions out of the energy poverty and to improve the quality of life of their population.
The proposed project aims to deal with this issue for the case of Kabasega Village in Gicumbi district Northern province of Rwanda. An off-grid hybrid system based on renewable energy resources solar PV and biomass with a Fuel cell as a backup is proposed. The target of this project is first to evaluate the renewable energy resources in the chosen area in order to determine its potential in meeting the local energy needs. After that, a survey needs to be conducted to determine the village energy load demand. HOMER software to be used to optimize a suitable system that meets the requirements. The implementation of this project will be innovative and the first in Rwanda after its successful implementation it can be implemented in other areas having the same characteristics with Kabasega village.
Name: Fundiswa Mthethwa
Bio/Personal Statement: I obtained my BSc Engineering (electronics) Degree at the University of KwaZulu Natal in South Africa in 2011. I then joined Eskom (South Africa Power Utility) Distribution in 2012 as an Engineer in training where I received a formal training thoroughly as an engineer in training for 18 months. After successfully completed training, I was appointed as a Field Service Engineer in Eskom Distribution Mpumalanga Operating Unit in Secunda Sector which I am still based at.I am registered as a candidate engineer with Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). I have submitted my dissertation for my MSc postgraduate studies in Electrical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa through an Eskom EPPIE (Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute) program. My research field is based on smart grid for distribution network which is Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR). I am a member of IEEE, IEEE Women In Engineering, SAIEE and Cigre. I have presented and published papers on a number of local and international conference.
Title of Capstone Project: Bizana Solar Powered Multi-Purpose Portable DC Pump
Abstract: Efforts in improving poverty and inequality in South Africa (SA) will never be realised unless the issue of service delivery in different communities is addressed, particularly access to water and provision of electricity. Electricity and Water are fundamental elements of rural area development and food security. Access to electricity and water has been a challenging issue in South African rural areas. Due to the unavailability of electricity and water sources for crops irrigation most of the inhabitants of South African rural areas are threaten with poverty and low income. Since poverty reduction, clean water and energy are global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 1, SDG 6 and SDG 7), it is important that responsibility is taken in ensuring that there is sustainability of energy in the country in terms of both capital and lower costs to consumers. Besides progress that has been made since 1994, there are still challenges that are lying ahead.
This proposal report focuses on an innovative design of Solar Powered Multi-Purpose Portable DC Pump for rural community of Bizana village. Access to household electricity and irrigation water are more vital when measuring living standard of the household that has cash crops farmed at the backyard. The analysis involves time series from various data sources produced by Stats SA in tracking progress achieved as far as energy and water are concerned. The proposed model will be used for household backyard crops irrigation through drip irrigation system during the day and electricity like lighting, mobile charger and radio at night time using the battery.
The package will be individually owned by each household. The solar Photo Voltaic (PV) Panel through DC pump controller drives a DC pump to pump water from a hand-dug shallow well (6 m to 15 m) to an elevated tanker for irrigation during the day and charges the battery as well for electricity for lighting at night. This will help small backyard farmers at Bizana with shallow water pump up to 1 litre per second of water to their crops using the power of the sun. This will significantly change the life of women by farming three to four times a year cash crop vegetables and selling to local market. This multi-purpose system will bring socio-economic development to the Bizana community. The package can be used in every rural community in the Sub-Saharan African countries who has shallow well at backyard.
Name: Thabane Hendry Shabangu
Bio/Personal Statement: Experienced Lecturer with a demonstrated history of working in the higher education industry. Skilled in Electrical engineering, Energy Systems, Analytical Skills, Customer Service, and Strategic Planning. Strong education professional with a Master Degree focused in Power Systems Engineering and water distribution networks from the Tshwane University of Technology.
Title of Capstone Project: Electrification of a rural Machadodorp village using solar PV panels: towards universal energy access.
Abstract: Rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to electricity and are mostly situated in remote areas far from the grid and will have to wait for several years in order to be connected to the grid. With the south African national power utility (Eskom) struggling to catch up with the increasing demand for supply, off-grid projects can help provide access to clean and reliable energy for these communities. A hybrid solution using solar PV panels coupled with a diesel generator is proposed for a rural community in Machadodorp in Mpumalanga province. This project and similar projects in other communities will meet one of the sustainable development goals to provide universal access to electricity by 2030.
Name: Raymond Kaswaga
Bio/Personal Statement: I am a lawyer from Tanzania who is so much interested in seeing Economic, social and cultural rights are observed and realized especially in the developing countries. I work very hard and I am charming and humble at the same time. I hate corruption and I want Africa with accessible and affordable renewable energy as I am aware that it is one of the best ways to eradicate poverty in Africa. I like to see the south and north collaborate to achieve this practically.
Title of Capstone Project: Ensuring financing and accessibility of renewable energy: a comparison of laws and practices between Tanzania and Italy
Abstract: Tanzania is among many African states that suffer the inefficiencies in the renewable energy (RE) sector despite being endowed with abundant, high quality renewable resources which could play a significant role in meeting the country’s energy demand and propel living standards to the level of industrialized countries by 2050. This means however, that an average annual investment of US$9 billion is needed, to reach the 100% RE. In order to provide 100% RE which is affordable for all, additional financial means are necessary. A new model focusing on an agreement between MDBs and Central Banks from the industrialized world outlines how to unlock this necessary investment to implement 100% RE for all by 2050 (World Future Council: 2018).
The race from poverty to prosperity is very difficult without enough RE that has fewer negative impacts on the environment. Tanzania has its own energy policy and regulation in so far as energy sector is concerned trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goals and Resilience. In Italy there has been tremendous development in the RE sector unlike Tanzania. The intended research will try to find a solution to this.
The 2009 Italian National Renewable energy Action Plan outlined existing and planned developments for encouraging RE use in Transport sector. The Italian government has supported RE projects with a range of economic incentive schemes that have simplified administrative procedure for the construction and operation of RES plants (e.g., green certificates) and have favoured RES plants over traditional thermoelectric plants in many respects (e.g., priority dispatch ). This is not the case in Tanzania as the transport sector is still facing a lot of challenges in so far as the RE is concerned. There has been an increase substantial increase in RE projects in Italy in the past decade, resulting in the use of more RE sources (RES) in all sectors (heating, and cooling, electricity and transport).
The share of RES in the Italian energy mix has more than doubled in the past decade, already outpacing EU and Italian government RES targets for 2020. In 2017, around 31 percent of Italian gross electricity consumption was from RES. The researcher wants to study in details as to how that was possible and not in Tanzania and therefore, to come up with the best suggestions.
The researcher intends to review the energy policy, laws, regulations, treatises and practices of Italy in comparison with that of Tanzania for purposes of enabling Tanzania to find the weaknesses in its policy. The research will also look at on RE in Tanzania and Italy again for purposes of electrification of Tanzania so that she may get rid of energy problems to meet it development goals.
The research will look at the effectiveness and efficiencies or otherwise of the banking laws, land laws, investment laws, business laws, commercial laws, tax laws, environmental laws as well as other important laws in relation to RE.
Name: Izaiah Mulenga
Bio/Personal Statement: Izaiah Mulenga is an Energy Consultant specializing in all forms of Energy, off grid and on grid systems, Energy feasibility studies, Design and Installation of Energy systems, Energy integration and sustainability, Energy investment options, Energy Efficiency, Energy Regulations and Legal analysis, Technical Standards and Quality Assurance, Power Purchase Agreements and related Connection Agreements, Energy Management System (ISO 50001), Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Information Security Management Systems (ISO 27001). He possess excellent skills in project design, management and implementation, data management and analytical skills, market and investment analysis skills at an expert level having worked with international, regional and local organizations such USAID-Power Africa under the Southern Africa Energy Project (SAEP) and Africa Electrotechnical Standardization Commission (AFSEC) – An African Union (AU) Arm responsible for electrical technical standards.
Title of Capston Project: Solar PV as a Distributed Generation Technology in Shopping Malls
Abstract: To support the sustainability of businesses and the economy at large, effective solutions that promote the provision of reliable and quality electricity must be sought. Energy is the essence of the economy and a crucial input to nearly all of the goods and services produced, therefore with access to reliable and affordable energy services, local entrepreneurs and companies of any size can generate local jobs, income and, thereby, promote sustainable local development.
The research proposes the use of renewable energy distributed generation technologies (self-generation solutions) in business firms and particularly for lighting and other small essential loads that would ensure business continuity especially in shopping malls. Lighting requirements are generally in the range of 3 W/sq. ft for most shopping malls, which can easily be met by Solar PV generation. Distributed generation systems are modular and flexible and can include multiple generation and storage elements (in hybrid configurations) in order to guarantee supply every day of the week. Often, shopping malls are vulnerable towards increasing grid electricity prices, intermittent grid power and are over dependent on expensive diesel backup power. With diesel power fluctuating, shopping malls are always at the risk of higher operating costs and the research proposes the switch of fuel to solar since shopping malls in most cases have abundant rooftop space both in the mall buildings and in parking areas and these are ideal for solar power generation.
Name: Christine Juta
Bio/Personal Statement: Christine Juta is a passionate Renewable Energy Engineer, based in Zimbabwe’s capital, Harare. A function of academic excellence, ambition and curiosity, Christine is an advocate of energy access for all who believes in the liberating power of quality education. She is a STEM Ambassador for the African Union/Centre for Girls and Women's Education in Africa.
Christine was awarded the Silver Shield in the 2017National Engineering Students Awards Competition hosted by the Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers. She works as a Programmes Officer for a local NGO, Ruzivo Trust in the field of Renewable Energy Policy Advocacy and Climate Resilience and is studying towards a MSc in Renewable Energy Engineering with the University of Zimbabwe.
She is also part of the Africa Matters Ambassadors Program, which is dedicated to changing African narratives by equipping Africans with leadership skills and grassroots projects in African communities. Christine is a part of the Future Africa Forum where she contributes opinion pieces on Energy and Development and was recently selected to be a Changemaker for the African Leadership Institute's Project Pakati.
Title of Capstone Project: Renewable Energy for Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (RE4STEM)
Abstract: Renewable Energy for Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (RE4STEM) is premised on the provision of clean energy services in order to increase the uptake, participation and retention of women in STEM fields. The project places energy access at the centre of provision of quality education in underserved communities because the socio-economic future of rural and peri-urban communities lies in the ability to embrace Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education as the main drivers of economic development. RES4STEM affords women and girls in rural and peri-urban Zimbabwe access to clean energy services through a hybrid system comprising a Solar PV System for electrification and water pumping, a communal biodigester for generation of biogas as an alternative cooking fuel and a STEM Technical and Vocational Education Training centre.
Zimbabwe remains a very patriarchal society with women and girls at the centre of core domestic chores which include, fetching water and cooking. Not only does this have serious health and environmental impacts, but it also denies young women and girls in underserved communities, adequate time to engage in extra-curricular STEM Education training. This project therefore considers the gender aspects of the energy-education link and researches the potential of access to clean energy services in contributing towards moving Zimbabwean women and their families out of poverty. Clean energy services reduce the time spent by children (especially girls) and women on basic survival activities such as cooking, gathering firewood and fetching water, lighting increases security, permits home study, and enables the use of educational media and communications, including information and communication technologies (ICTs). RE4STEM affords beneficiaries more time to engage in technical vocational training programs at the STEM learning centre which will be housed in the community. To ensure sustainability and community ownership of the project, the women will receive training on the maintenance of biodigesters, marketing of biogas stoves and installation of rooftop solar PV systems. The research is expected to determine the configuration that will give the minimum levelized cost of energy at the required reliability of 99%.
Name: Thembinkosi Maphosa
Bio/Personal Statement: Thembinkosi Maphosa is a holder of a B.Com degree in Marketing and Economics from Great Zimbabwe University. He is also a holder of a Master of Science degree in Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management from University of Zimbabwe. Currently, Maphosa is studying towards attaining a PhD in Management and Energy Efficient Interventions at the University of the Western Cape.
Since 2017, he has been working as a Tutor in the Economics and Management Sciences Faculty at the University of the Western Cape. Tutor in Business Research Methods and Operations Management.
Title of Capstone Project: Sustainable financial mechanisms for energy efficient interventions projects in low-income communities: case study Kuyasa, Cape Town
Abstract: Sustainable renewable energy projects need to be sustainable on all levels: the financial, economic, social, and environmental levels. This study has explored financial mechanisms other than the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to finance energy efficient interventions projects in low-income communities in South Africa. A critical retrospective analysis is reported of a energy efficient intervention in the Kuyasa community, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, in which 2 309 houses were retrofitted with solar water heaters, compact fluorescent lights, and insulated ceilings. The project was registered as a CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN-FCCC). Installations were completed during 2008 – 2010 by project implementer South South North. However, the combined international and national Certified Emission Reduction (CER) revenues realised were only R1 150 000, ~3.5% of the R33million capital costs. Suggestions were made for the beneficiaries to provide some financial contribution, but this was also not realised. Our study incorporated a questionnaire survey 10 out of 15 renewable energy experts. This study explores financial mechanisms other than the CDM that could be used to recover some portion of the capital costs. We critically analyse these strategies and suggest methods to achieve greater financial sustainability for similar projects within low-income communities.